|The stage of the early state - a phase of transition and formation. During this stage many new and traditional mechanisms were applied rather consciously or under the pressure of events. |
The mechanism of consciously flowing systematic reforms for the first time in a history of Russian state genesis was applied at the end of 40-s of the X century by the princess Olga. The regional potestoral-political traditions, specificity, the status and a way of their annexation to old russian state were taken into account during their conducting. They included the Ryurikovichi`s "domain" – Middle Dnieper territory; northern lands which had long contractual relations having with a ruling dynasty and also conquered after the mutiny lands of drevlane and that`s why deprived of civil rights.
The reforms were carried out, by the annals, in three stages. The first one took place during the Olga`s reign and was concentrated in time (some years) and limited in spheres and territories of application. The second stage, under Vladimir, was more elongated in time (80-90-s of the X cent.) and all-embracing in the territorial aspect, concerning almost all sides of a life of the society. The third one, under Jaroslav and his sons, was discreet in time, rather episodic and touched only the legal sphere and the system of enthronement and the status of prince.
Olga managed to conduct the most cardinal changes in again conquered after the revolt the lands of Drevlane. All old bodies of local power - from prince to the town self-government, were liquidated. Instead of tribal princedom, i.e. ethnopotestoral body there created a pure territorial unit - "land" under the control of prince from the house of Ryurikovichi - the Kievan deputy.
Local mononorms or common law10 were replaced by the grand-ducal "charters" -decrees for concrete cases, i.e. common legal system with guarantees for the population was liquidated. The unsystematic tribute (the contribution from times of Igor) was replaced by the constant fixed "uroki" which were gathered not during cancelled gafol, but were driven to the princely "stani" under protection of the Kievan garrisons. As a result there appeared many attributes of the statehood - replacement of the tribal division by the territorial one, occurrence of the tax system, and the apparatus of compulsion. The relations of reciprocity, which existed in the chiefdom (in Drevlane`s princedom between the ruling elite, hierarchy and other society) were actually or ideologically replaced by the domination-submission relations.
Reforms in the North were more limited and had rather privately legal nature. First, the North was completely loyal to Kiev and personally to Olga during the crisis so there was no need to strengthen positions of the government here.
On the other hand, there was no legal or peaceful opportunity to change position for the benefit of princely authority since the relations between local hierarchy and prince had traditional - contractual character. As the strong points of Ryurikovichi`s personal authority and riches there allocated the lands and settlements with the special status – pogosti - where inhabitants didn`t pay a tribute (state tax), but quitrent - the rent directly for the benefit of the princely personality.
The private possessions and settlements of princes - villages - were created in the domain, in the close proximity to Kiev.
The Olga's reforms were subjectively directed to the creation of monopoly of the supreme power only for the Ryurikovichi, and were objectively the first step to creation of the early state in Rus.
The chronicles directly or are indirectly mentioned only several reforms from numerous Vladimir the Saint`s transformations: military, political, rather limited legal and only one (religious - ideological) - is described rather in details. It is no wonder because of the hagiographical character of the description of the activity of Vladimir, and also with authorship of the Russian annals as they were created exclusively in the church environment.
^ reform had two stages what was connected with the tasks facing to the state. In the beginning it was the conquering of the tribes, princedoms, cities, which disappeared or weren`t earlier subordinated to Kiev, later – the defense against a massive impact of nomads - pechenegi.
In the first case a rather small separation was necessary in order to cope with the tribal home guards and not numerous bodyguards, and then to make small garrisons of points under control - “gradi”. They were provided (by earlier example of Great Moravia and Czechia) due to the surrounding population what was profitable from the economic point of view. The army should consist of the professionals who weren`t connected by origin with the local population. Ideal for this role were the mercenaries - varyags and the bodyguard - "rus", consisted of people who lost their traditional (tribal) social and ethnic connections.
In the second case it was required to create a big army that had to struggle for patriotic reasons for the defensive wars gave no plunder. The part of an army could be introduced by not so well trained (but with professionals in the head) garrisons of boundary fortresses, the other part – by professional, mobile, surpassing pechenegi in quality cavalry. These both parts initially were heterogeneous in the ethnic and social nature, but during the joint military activities they were integrated into monolithic organization - « big state bodyguard», though and divided in ranks, but possessing corporative consciousness and feeling of "elitism", superiority over the rest of the population, and later - realization of their exclusive right to advise to the prince and to participate in the state governing. Military mechanisms have created ready machinery of state of different levels. The military mechanism created the complete state machinery of different levels. In the connection with war «the big bodyguard» replaced tribal troops and small tribal and personal bodyguards, and also «all rosi» - military-powerful elite of the country. Varyags-mercenaries kept to be used, but only in case of large internal and external conflicts.
^ reform touched the system of the organization of the supreme authority and government. The power over all lands and key cities was transferred only to sons of grand duke and all members of the house of Ryurikovichi, and only at their shortage – to their vassals from the structure of the «senior bodyguard» - “the best specimen», called "bolyare" after the Bulgarian term. This system of the organization of the higher authority has received in the literature the name of «patrimonial sovereignty of the Ryurikovichi over Rus». The nearest analogies of such a system are Khazar Khaghanate, Poland, Scandinavia.
Vladimir did not carry out the universal legal reforms, confining himself to the sphere of the church law. However, one reform - temporary introduction of a death penalty - took place during his reign. The religious-ideological motivation of this step is very interesting because it implies the delivery of the sword of justice from God to the governor, giving the latter the right over the lives of "malicious" citizens in interests of the "kind" ones. From the point of view of assistance to the process of the state genesis this reform by a method of intimidation helped to liquidate inevitable collateral consequences very quickly which were the outlay from the swift breaking of tribal social and ethnopotestoral relations, generating «a lot of robbers » (Shinakov 2003).
During carrying out of the given reform there used the results of early religious one (with the support of the orthodox priests). We shall stop only on its value in the context of the state genesis for there is a great deal of the literature concerning it.
Firstly, the integrative one. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the dynasty inside the country. Thirdly, strengthening of the foreign policy positions and prestige of the new state, as a whole, and of the ruling family.
More obviously the integrative purpose of religious reform can be seen in the description of its pagan part - pagan idols of different tribes were simply delivered to Kiev, as though taken hostages and violently subordinated to the God of rusi - Perun. Christianization solved the problem even more cardinally, i.e. tribal gods were simply abolished. On the other hand, the acceptance of the equally alien religion to all tribes helped to avoid psychological difficulty - natural unwillingness to submit to the god of the neighbors, equal in rank to their own one.
From the point of view of increasing the prestige of the authority not only the religious ideology of the country or even ceremonialism were important, but also the process of its acceptance - practically from the hands of the head of the world – Roman basileus - accompanied with the establishment with the family ties with his dynasty (for Vladimir it was more important than the very fact of christening). Vladimir's practicality is important too – for he knew, that for Christian states any contracts with pagans were not considered obligatory.
The church organization could be used as one of the elements of machinery of state, and the religion, the religious literature and art could become a part of the ideological mechanism of legitimation of power.
Implicitly the conducting of the territorial-administrative, family-marital, monetary-financial reforms under Vladimir with the big degree of reliability is based on the context of annals, diachronic comparative analysis of a situation before and after his reign, the data of archeology, numismatics, emblematics, epigraphy.
^ . If up to Vladimir there were independent or semi-independent volosts, country churchyards, the worlds were kept and полузависимые ethnopotestoral bodies of different types and sizes, so thst in XI century there already existed the unified division of Rus into the lands, volosti, pogosti, communities. They were ruled by the princes from the house of the Ryurikovichi and their deputies - vassals, elective «startsi gradski» and heads.
The family-marital reform is confirmed by the fact that in the first half of Vladimir`s reign there was still a polygamy and in the end of it - monogamy where, at least, the Church and princely administration could supervise it.
^ consisted of a complete cancellation of gafol, and its replacement by stage-by-stage gathering of a tribute (pogosti - volosti - lands - Kiev) with the help of special detachments such as «tax police». The orientation of Russian monetary-weight system changed from the Muslim East where silver mines exhausted, to Byzantine. The first Russian coins with princely and Christian symbols were minted on a sample of Byzantine milliarisi, what also increased the state prestige.
Under Jaroslav the Wise the precise system of enthronement, called "lestvitsa" was at last established. The throne was transferred from the brother to the brother, then the turn passed to the next generation of brothers and so on.
^ began even during civil wars of 1016-1019 and proceeded with breaks down to disintegration of the Old russian state in 30-s of XII century.
Naturally, as the mechanism of the state genesis, they served as the means of consolidating of the early state and increasing the authority of power, and directly as the protection of economic interests of the ruling elite, and also (though later) - of the land hierarchy.
^ of a phase of early statehood formation are divided into military-unifying, military-defensive, military-expansionist, conflicts with a demographic orientation, internal conflicts, military interference in the affairs of neighbouring countries, conflicts of other type.
The military-unifying mechanisms cover the short period (975-985, 993) under Jaropolk and the beginning of Vladimir the Saint`s reign and had the expansion of territorial, demographic and financial-economic base of the central power for an object and objectively had the integrative nature.
^ mechanism covers the 90-s of the X cent. - the middle of Vladimir the Saint`s reign, and also 1018, 1036, 1060-1061, 1068. The last (except for 1068) years slightly influenced the process of state genesis, and the defense from pechenegi became the first nation-wide event which played a main part in the consolidation of the just territorially created early state in the 90-s of X cent. It served as the ideological justification of many "unpopular" activities of ruling elite and helped its reconciliation with the local military hierarchy which lost its power by means of including it in the structure of «big state bodyguard»11.
^ mechanisms (on the contrast with "internal"-unifying ones) didn`t play an essential part in the state genesis without depending on their losing or winning. It is necessary to note only «the imperial experiment» of Svyatoslav, who tried to create the state of the same form (two-level), but of other scale12.
The conflicts of a demographic orientation were specifically oldrussian phenomenon for as against the Western Europe, in its East there was need of population and not of land. There were conflicts which, probably, had the conscious purpose of resettlement of the whole groups of the population to Rus as it, probably, took place in 1058 with galindi, moved to the central region of Rus after the Jaroslavichi`s campaign. The defensive war with pechenegi in 1036, and the offensive one against torki in 1055 had the side demographic effect – the creation of special groups of population - frontier guards-federats. The settlement of the Polish prisoners on the boundary river Ros was of the same value.
The internal conflicts had the following positive value for consolidation of statehood: during their course the number of applicants for the supreme authority was reduced, and sometimes there remained only one autocrator, as Jaroslav the Wise in 1019 or Vladimir the Saint in 980. Successfully resolved military conflict to a less degree (for there almost were not conflicts of a separative orientation) stopped the centrifugal tendencies. During the suppression of national uprisings (1068-1069, 1071) there was a temporary consolidation of the ruling elite. Some of the revolts (1015, 1068-1069, 1071) influenced the legislative activity (creation of «the Jaroslav's Law» in 1016-1019, Brief edition of “the Russian Law” in 1072).
^ The participation in the suppression of military elite mutinies and separative movements in the Byzantine empire in 987-988 could push the governors of Byzantine to authorize a marriage of princess Anna and Vladimir that increased the prestige of the latter both inside the country and abroad. The assistance to Kazimir the Restorer in the suppression of the national uprising and the separative movements in 1041-1047 in Poland strengthened positions of Rus on its western borders and essentially increased its international prestige.
^ Till now there has been no explanation of the reasons for overdue «viking campaign» to Byzantine in 1043, which ended with a failure. Probably, the purpose was of military-frightening nature - to achieve the greater autonomy of Russian Church, to provide more profitable conditions of trade or, for example, to receive recognition of the rights of Jaroslav on a title of caesar (which he had in the end of his life by the epigrahic data).
Among other mechanisms the most closely contaminated with military ones there appeared integrative-demographic, meritocratic and partly – ideological mechanisms.
The first ones received the detailed description in one of the last articles of the author (Shinakov, in printing). It was the practice of resettlement of the prisoners and the whole suppressed tribes on the boundary (by the Byzantine-Bulgarian example) and the empty lands that connected them with military mechanisms. Besides solving the problem of settling soldiers in the boundary fortresses, Vladimir simultaneously undermined the main source of separatism among the subordinated tribes and princedoms. In the structure of their garrisons the significant part was played by the military-political elite of these tribes - «best specimen», who violently were come off from their ethnosocial environment and resettled to the opposite borders of the state. Former nomads (khazars, pechenegi, torki) helped to form Russian cavalry in the structure of the special boundary "settled" armies («their own pogani»), or directly including in the structure of «the big bodyguard» (e.g. hazari - according to the archeological data).
Survivals (or reminiscences) of meritocratic mechanisms are connected with the sources and the way of acquisition of the “the big bodyguard”. To tell the truth, their use finds its confirmation not in the main sources, but in the Russian bylinas and written monuments of the neighbouring, synchrostadial and similar in type of state genesis, countries - Poland in particular (Gall the Anonym 1994:343). The abilities to war were the way of increasing the social status and including into the new, early state ruling bodyguard top that helped it to win tribal elite and hierarchy.
^ mechanisms started to be applied already in the separate chiefdoms, completely coinciding with the pagan religion, and its conductors were the priests - "volchvi". However the period of acting of these mechanisms found its reflection only in the chronicle of the Christian period. In ПВЛ there compiled three types of ideological legitimation of power: resettling-patrimonial, which reflected the action of "patrimonial" (genealogic) mechanisms (a legend about Kiy and his brothers); bodyguardian - «varyag legend », connected with the action of military - unifying and contractual-compromising mechanisms, the christian ideology. The latter one is shown in the given aspect the least precisely: the idea of primordiality of authority and its reception from the God is implicitly traced. The same christian origin, probably in the way of direct adoption from Byzantine – belongs to the idea about a duty of the soldiers to protect Faith and the fatherland, not without a reason the first name of the new, ethnically heterogeneous people became "christians". Patriotism has its origin exactly in this form for rusi were one of the peoples of the state, and their god was pagan Perun. Except for the military and integrative purposes, christian-ideological mechanisms were used for the increasing of the prestige of Russia in foreign policy, national self-consciousness, authority of the princely power. The ideological substantiation was created and for the concrete, private purposes: for example, introduction of a capital punishment for the first time, creation of the notion that the attempt on a life and even health of prince from the House of Ryurikovichi was a deadly sin, for which the guilty will be inevitably punished by God. The latter is especially essential, for not only in the common law, but even in the codified law - « the Russian Law» - articles about protection of a life, health and honour of prince were absent.
The legal mechanisms partly coincide with the mechanisms of reforms, codifying and legitimating their results. But more often reforms did not find reflection in the written law, remaining, probably, at a level of oral princely decisions and decrees. On the other hand, also the very right carries not preventive, but eventual, precedental character and fixes the results of operative reaction on the concrete incidents, including connected with the protection of a life, health, honour and property of ruling elite (bodyguard, state and privately owning princely administration) and hierarchy (boyars - land owners).
^ mechanisms were applied by Vladimir during his activity in parallel with the reformatory and military ones. Their basic sphere - integration, concept of internal and external prestige, legitimation of power, and also expansion of territorial limits of the state, strengthening its foreign policy positions. (Shinakov 2000 I). We shall add, that Vladimir could try to make family-marital mechanisms the alternative to the patrimonial ones, but judging by the system of enthronement, introduced under Jaroslav the Wise, this attempt failed.
The comparative analysis of mechanisms of the concrete forms of statehood shows, that at the stages of complex chiefdoms and early states (for earlier stages there are no typology selected by the author and enough informative sources) in Russia of IX - the middle of XI cent. as a whole or as separate elements there existed the following forms:
1. Corporative-exploiting form; 2. Two-level form; 3. Official-bureaucratic of moderate (Byzantine-Bulgarian (Shinakov, 2001) model; 4. Forms of trading and agricultural ("eastern") city - state.
The given conclusion does not contradict with earlier made on the basis of the empirical analysis ones about "two-levelness" of the barbarian state (Shinakov 1993 а, б), and with some estimations of the character of the old russian statehood as a whole, claiming universalism.
The following theories: the theory of the "state" or "city" feudalism (the founder - B.A. Rybakov, the present supporter - M.B. Sverdlov), by definition the most similar to «the eastern despotism », that is - with official-bureaucratic state; the theory of the cities-states basically of the "commercial and industrial" type and in the second turn cities-states - communities of the veche type, for the first time offered by V.O. Klyuchevsky (Klyuchevsky 1987:137-150, P.161-171), during last decades were shared in the pure state only by foreign scientists (Soloviev 1979; Lind 1984). Some historians conveyed this idea to the point of irrationality, postulating the absence of the actual statehood in Rus which represented «varyag trade enterprise», the analogue of the East-Indian company, where separate princedoms were «the commercial enterprises for gaining the profit» (Pipes 1993 : 48). The analyzed action of mechanisms, including trading-plutocratic, shows that they were objectively one of the important, and during the some moments - determinative points of the state genesis, though they could subjectively pursue mainly economic aims. Domestic scientists (Froyanov, Dvornichenko 1986, 1988; Majorov 2001) emphasize the potestaral (?)-administrative aspect in the formation of the cities-states in Rus, which is close to the states-communities (polises).
The elements of the official-bureaucratic statehood (contaminated with such a system of ruling as «the eastern despotism» and with such a social basis as «the Asian way of manufacture») are traced in the two theories: of “the state feudalism” and “the bodyguard state”. The features of the second one awe as follows: phenomenon of «the power-property», rigid division into societies on the basis of a role principle, also taxes and other kinds of duties of citizens in relation to the state machinery. The latter one in contrast to the classical and «the eastern despotism» consists not of officials, but coincides with the military bodyguard top, over which the Supreme governor (in contrast to the same despotism) almost does not rise and sacralize. Thus, «the bodyguard state» represents symbiosis of official-bureaucratic, corporative-exploiting, and in perspective – feudal-hierarchical statehood. A.A. Gorsky, the supporter of the theory of “the state feudalism”, who for the first time lifted a question about the bodyguard role in the political (and not just military) system of Ancient Rus, which was “early feudal in nature” (1984), considers it the main tool and source of the further feudalization of the latter (Gorsky 1989:87). The bodyguard is the corporatively organized class of feudals, so-called «the collective feudal». In the stage-stadial aspect of the theory of politogenesis by Claessen-Skalnik it means the full coincidence with a stage of the early state. E.A. Melnikova (1995:22) and N.F. Kotlyar (1995:46) have practically the same opinion about the stadial limits of “the bodyguard state”. Agreeing with them in stadial aspect, we can not do it with the chronological one: they begin the early state in the end of IX cent., we consider the end of X cent. By the way we consider it rather a short-term episode of the old russian state genesis, coinciding with the transition from complex chiefdoms to the early state, and the phase (and the tool) of its formation. (Shinakov 2002 : 31-32, 277-287).
In potestoral-political ethnography this term («the bodyguard state»), old russian by origin, is used for a designation of one of the forms of complex chiefdoms (along with «the complex state», « the protocity-state », etc.) (Kubbel 1988 : 52, 147).
In medievism and slavism «the bodyguard state» is considered one of forms of early feudal statehood of the Central Europe (Тrzesztik 1987; Zemlicska, Marsina 1991), i.e. Great Moravia, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, and also, in our opinion - Denmark (Shinakov 2002 : 277). Incidentally, for this region we consider the bodyguard state not the type of early feudalism, but the form of the early state of a phase of its formation, the tool and even the special transitive form from complex chiefdoms (Shinakov 1998б: 131-132).
The late elements of the official-bureaucratic statehood have even more amplified at the construction of the early christian statehood under the influence of the Byzantine-Bulgarian model and partial inclusion of Rus into the structure of «Byzantine community of the states» (Obolensky 1982).
For the macroregion of Eastern, Central, Northern and Southeast Europe the certain forms and elements of statehood (and latent behind them ones, resulting in them with the help of mechanisms) are contaminated with the certain types of civilization or models of development (Shinakov 2002: 290-291).
The corporative-exploiting and two-level statehood are connected with the nomadic (steppe) civilization, introduced by Khazar Khaghanate and I Bulgarian empire (before Krum`s reforms). It was already spoken about official-bureaucratic and "bodyguard" forms, the cities-states are by all means connected with the Baltic cultural-economic community. Also it is not necessary to try "to choose" one of them for the whole Rus, as supporters of absolutization of this or that model of development tried to do. In its different regions and at different stages of the state genesis in a different degree there traced the elements of all earlier enumerated forms of statehood.
The correctness of earlier made initially typological positions for Rus has sustained the checking by a method of contamination of the state genesis mechanisms with the forms of statehood.
The stadial distribution of the mechanisms into the stages of the state genesis is traced less precisely. The same mechanisms, but in a different degree, operated at the stages of the separate and complex chiefdoms, and also at the formation of the early state. Actually, one of the earliest stadial mechanisms - "patrimonial" (genealogic) ones - keep operating in the remaining type even at a stage of early state. They are the preservation of "blood feud" in the law of Ancient Rus till 1072, and also so-called «patrimonial sovereignty of the Ryurikovichi» (Nazarenko 1986; Shchavelev 2000). On the other hand, the elements of the "prelegal" and ideological mechanisms, usually stadially later, are already traced at the transition from the simple chiefdoms to complex ones. As a result, sharing R. Carneiro`s point of view about preservation of the importance of the stadial approach as a whole (Carneiro 2000: 94), at least in the contamination with mechanisms, we consider the regional-typological aspect more important, than stadial one for studying the process of old russian state genesis.
In summary we need to note, that in Claessen`s formula «similar problems have similar solutions» (Claessen 2006:28), the average part - the mechanism, means of the solution of the problems is missed.
The old russian example basically confirms the last part of the formula – about the contamination of the mechanisms of the certain type with concrete forms of statehood, created with their help.
1. Recently about the correlation of the given terms in their historical development: Skalnik ed. by … 2002; Carneiro 2003 or, from earlier editions: A handbook of method … 1970.
2. About the understanding of the term of the history of the political anthropology there is no uniform point of view. Compare: Political anthropology 1966; Winkler 1970; Service and Cohen 1978; Claessen 1981; Кochakova 1986 Introduction; Kubbel 1988 Introduction; Godiner 1991; Кradin 2001, 2004.
3. Leningrad scientist V.M. Misyugin called the similar in essence scientific discipline ethnosocial history (Misyugin 1984).
4. Earlier, before the acquaintance with the positions of political anthropology, the author offered other periodization of the process of the old russian state genesis. Stage 1 - a conglomerate of the "barbarian" states and non-states under the military - trading domination of "rusi" and Novgorod (IХ – middle of the X cent.); Stage 2 – the complete victory of the top level of statehood ("rusi" with the only Ryurikovichi`s right for power. The state form of exploitation (second half of X - middle of the XII cent.); Stage 3 - formation of the true statehood with the elements of class functions (Shinakov 1993 a: 178-179).
5. Perhaps, A.P. Novoseltsev was the first to mention fundamentally the aspect of regional-political division of the Eastern Europe (Novoseltsev 1991). The author touched this question, and then has developed his own scheme of regional-typological aspect of the genesis of the old russian statehood (Shinakov 1993 a: 179; 1995; 1998; 1999; 2000 a, c; 2002 : 106-137). Up to the end of X century the lines of the development in these 5-6 regions were typologically various, but all led to the early state.
6. There also exist other opinions about the importance of the crisis of Olga`s reforms and a degree of political-territorial recourse of statehood (Gorsky 2004)
7. Constantine mentions, that «all rosi» go in the gafol (Constantine Porfirogenetus 1991: 50,51), that already testifies their rather small number. For earlier time Gardizi tells about 100-200 of rusi, making an annual winter detour of the Slavic lands (Novoseltsev 1965: 400).
8. The list and examples of the action of "initial" or "traditional" mechanisms of institutionalization and legitimation of power are given in Chapter 1 of the author`s thesis for a doctor's degree (Shinakov 2000 а), and his typology of forms of the states (partly – complex chiefdoms) is given in the author's abstract of the thesis (Shinakov 2000б: 12) in more detailed variant, with explanations and examples (Shinakov 2003, 2005). In the contrast to the earlier variants of typology of the states (Oberg 1955, for example) our typology to the greater extent takes into account the stadial aspect and has more universal character.
9. Some historians consider the ritual surrounding of the conflict the main thing, taking into account the peculiarities of the pagan religious-mystical outlook (Alexandrov 1995).
10. About the correlation of the traditional mononorm and already early state pre-law you may see: Shinakov, Ponomareva 2005.
11. The more detailed structure of such a bodyguard, where the regiment of "princes" (probably, former tribes) was included was described for the neighbouring Poland (Gall the Anonym 1994:335).
12. "Imperial" stage is sometimes considered obligatory at the certain lines of the state genesis, and namely for Slavic one, building up its last stage (Korolyuk 1972:23).
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