Проект по теме «Журналист» icon

Проект по теме «Журналист»

НазваниеПроект по теме «Журналист»
О. И. Нечаева
Дата конвертации14.09.2012
Размер48 Kb.

Проект по теме «Журналист»

выполнила: Василенко Екатерина,

группа 902, КАИТ №20,

преподаватель: О. И. Нечаева

Г. Москва 2006 год










The preface

Greece is the native land of great antique civilizations, the land filled by myths and legends. Not without reason Greece is named a cradle of world culture: it has presented the world outstanding philosophers, playwrights and historians. TODAY Greece is a well-developed European country carefully keeping its history and culture and giving to the visitors the fine moments of acquaintance with the traditions and customs.

^ Treasury of Atheni
rosperity of Greece took place at the time when many European people still lived in tribal order. After centuries-old decline the ancient civilization has revived, and has managed to keep its historical legacy. Its main property are architectural monuments, first of all antique temples to which the significant part of this magazine is devoted. Except for the detailed story about some of them, there is also offered acquaintance with the Greek mythology and some traditions connected with Greek myths and legends to the reader.

The acropolis of Athens

It goes without saying; there is no other city in the world which would have glory and popularity of Athens. The history of this city is lost in a gloom of the remote past, and absence of these historical data is filled with the excellent in inspiration and imagination Greek mythology.

According to the legend, two powerful deities, Poseidon and Athena (goddess of culture, wisdom, and military strategy), struggled for the right of protection the city and its inhabitants.
Olympic gods have suggested contenders to give a gift to the city for the solving this dispute. So, Poseidon has struck in a rock the trident and from it sea water as a symbol of sea power of city which was given it by the god of the sea has gushed out, and from a place where Athena has struck spear, there has ascended an olive tree. Gods have concluded that an Athens’ gift was much more valuable and have given people under her protection, and city was called in the name of Athens.

There are a lot of magnificent monuments of many epoch and cultures in Athens, but without what Athens can’t be imagined is an Acropolis. The Acropolis hill, called the "Sacred Rock" of Athens, is the most important site of the city. So, this hill attracted people since times of the remote past and has been populated in 3500-

^ The Acropolis Hill
000 years B.C. In days of Miken epoch in 1600-1000 B.C. at its top the imperial palace has been constructed, and it has been enclosed by a wall thickness of 4-4,5 meters. radually the settlement moved ahead to bottom, and the top became a place of worship. Some times the Acropolis destroyed, on the base of old buildings were erected new. The basic building of the Acropolis was made during the Classical period, in the 5th century B.C. - at this time have appeared three important temples, the masterpieces of the world architecture – the

Parthenon, the Erechtheum, and the Temple of Nike, dedicated to Athena Parthenos, Athena Polias, and Athena-Apteros Nike, respectively.

As entrance in the Acropolis served Propylene, constructed by the architect Mnesikles in 437-432 years B.C. The Greek word “propylaeym” is meant with "a monumental smart tower of an input of people", and, certainly, an entrance in such place of worship what was the Acropolis, should be monumental. Ancient Greeks spoke about Propylene with delight and named its Brilliant Face of the Acropolis.

But construction of the Propylene has not been finished - some sites of walls have remained not ground, and in 1646 it has been strongly destroyed at explosion of a powder warehouse with which turkish soldiers have arranged here.

To the right of the Propylene is situated the Temple of Athena Nike

erected by the architect Kallikrates. This graceful construction has very small sizes - 8, 27 х 5, 44 meters.

Inside of a temple the wooden sculpture of the goddess has been established. According to a legend, originally it had wings which then were cut off by Athenians that the Victory

^ The Propylene. (Main facade)
he place where the temple was constructed, is connected with one of the most drama events of the Greek mythology - from here the Athenian tsar Egej looked at the sea pending the ships of son Teseja. Tesej has gone to Crete to kill the Minotaur and to release the city from a terrible tribute. He has agreed with the father, that in case of success of the mission he will replace a black mourning sail by

^ The Temple of Athene Nike

white one, but he has forgotten about an arrangement. So, Egej,

Culture and Art of the Ancient Greece
aving seen a black sail, decided, that his son was lost, and in despair he has rushed to the sea which has received then his name. In days of the turkish occupation the temple has been destroyed, and the bastion has been constructed of its material. Fortunately, the most part of blocks has escaped and subsequently the temple almost has been completely restored.

The Parthenon

"The Parthenon...enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built. Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle correspondence between the curvature of the stylobate, the batter, or taper, of the naos walls and the entasis of the columns. (John Julius Norwich, “Great Architecture of the world”).


t goes without saying, that the Parthenon is the most important and characteristic monument of the ancient Greek civilization and still remains its international symbol. It was dedicated to Athena Parthenos, the patron goddess of Athens. It was built between 447 and 438 B.C. and its sculptural decoration was completed in 432 B.C. The construction of the monument was initiated by Perikles, the

supervisor of the whole work was The ^ Parthenon (the main façade)

Pheidias, the famous Athenian sculptor, while Iktinos and Kallikrates were the architects of the building. The temple is built in the Doric order and almost exclusively of Pentelic marble. It is peripteral, with eight columns on each of the narrow sides

and seventeen columns on each of the long ones. The central part of the temple, called the cella, sheltered the famous chryselephantine cult statue of Athena, made by Pheidias.

The sculptural decoration of the Parthenon is a unique combination of the Doric metopes and triglyphs on the entablature, and the Ionic frieze on the walls of the cella. The metopes depict the Gigantomachy on the east side, the Amazonomachy on the west, the Centauromachy on the south, and scenes from the Trojan War on the north.

The relief frieze depicts the Procession of the Panathenaea, the most formal religious festival of ancient Athens. The scene runs along all the four sides of the building and includes the figures of gods, and beasts of some 360 humans.

^ The Parthenon (east front)

The two pediments of the temple are decorated with mythological scenes: the east, above the building's main entrance, shows the birth of Athena, and the west, the fight between Athena and Poseidon for the name of the city of Athens. The Parthenon retained its religious character in the following centuries and was converted into a Byzantine church, a Latin church and a Muslim mosque.

The Turks used the Parthenon as a powder magazine when the Venetians, under Admiral Morosini, sieged the Acropolis in 1687. One of the Venetian bombs fell on the Parthenon and caused a tremendous explosion that destroyed a great part of the monument which had been preserved in a good condition until then.

The disaster was completed in the beginning of the 19th century, when the British ambassador in Constantinople, Lord Elgin, stole the greatest part of the sculptural decoration of the monument (frieze, metopes, pediments), transferred them to England and sold them to the British Museum, where they are still exhibited, being one of the most significant collections of the museum.

The Erechtheum

On the northern part of the Acropolis rises above the marble Erectheum, the finest creation of classical art, the most ancient place of worship of the athenians, constructed in 421-407 years B.C., on a place of the Mikan imperial palace.

^ The Erechtheum. South-East

Here was resolved a famous viemlegendary dispute of two deities for the right of protection the city. So, the Athenians with a viewof their reconciliation have constructed two temples devoted to Athena and Poseidon under one roof. The construction has received the name Erechtheum.

The east part of a temple has been devoted to the Athena and the most ancient wooden statue of the goddess which have fallen as trusted, from the sky, there was stored.

On 12 steps below there was temple of Poseidon. On a floor of this part of a temple, where there is no tiled covering of a floor are visible three apertures – traces of Poseidon’s trident in a rock. In a corresponding place - on a roof of a temple - there is an aperture from the handle of the trident, made at its rise for impact.

The greatest interest in the Erechtheum represents the Portico of Daughters - six sculptures of the most charming girls support a roof of an extension of a temple instead of columns. In Byzantine time they were named Caryatids that meant women from the small town Caria, famous for their exclusive beauty. But in the beginning of the 19th century one of the Caryatids (together with friezes and pediments of Parthenon) was taken out to England with the permission of the Turkish Government by the

^ The Erechtheum. South-East view

cfambassador of this country in Constantinople Lord Elgin. Elgin’s act has so excited Athenians that soon was born a legend about sounds heard in night - crying of five Daughters who have remained on a temple about their stolen sister. And

The Erechtheum. Portico of Caryatids. South-East view
ord Byron "has devoted" to the robber of these immortal treasures his poem "The Curse of Minerva". So, these well-known Elgin’s marbles are kept in the British museum, and the statue on a temple is replaced by a copy.


Of the ancient Greece

In the 5th – 6th centuries BC solemn processions in honour of this or that deity and bringing of a victim in its honour before the main temple became an indispensable part of a religious cult in the Ancient Greece. among these celebrations the most popular were the performances about yhe life of gods.

Gradually growing popularity of theatrical performances has led to that they not only have taken a dominating place in religious and public festivals, but also were separated from religious ceremonies, became an independent kind of art and one of the most passionate hobbies of ancient Greeks.

But in an ancient theatre each play was staged - with rare exception - only once. And theatrical festivals began to pass only three times in a year - during holidays in honour of Dionysus, the god

^ The Theatre of Dionysus in Athens

of wine and the patron of a theatrical art.

People related to the festival very seriously: the playwrights prepared their new works, the special jury appreciated

performances and chose the best drama, and names of authors, plays and the places, borrowed by them, were engraved on marble boards after festival.

Perhaps the details of theatre life of Athens are the best-known to us. At the bottom of the Acropolis, from its southern party, situated a center of worship to Dionysus. Now we can see here the rests of the big altar, two temples, constructed in the 5th – 6th centuries B.C., and, certainly, the theatre devoted Dionysus (the 4th century B.C.). On its stage the tragedies of Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes and other well-known Athenian authors have been shown for the first time.

On the device, as well as any other ancient theatre, it reminds the open stadium – spectator rows rise upwards platforms where there was an action. On the forward part of a stage sculptural images of various events from Dionysus’ life were well kept. The theatre has been calculated practically on

all population of city and contained up to 17 thousand spectators.

^ The Theatre of Dionysus in Athens
heatrical performance in the Ancient Greece essentially differed from modern performance: several actors (and at the beginning – only one person accompanied by chorus) participated in performance, and their opportunities have been strongly limited – faces of actors were closed by the masks corresponding this or that character, and all set of expressive means was reduced up to a voice and plastics.


The Theseum.
t since the 6th century religious ceremonies in honour of a deity began to be perceived only as some kind of the introduction to the main action - to sports meets. Thus even theatrical performances have been removed on the second plan. The place of sport competitions in a life of the Greeks is possible to

illustrate a following

interesting fact: to the West from the Acropolis, on a low Market hill, is situated the temple build in the middle of the 5th century B.C.. According to one version - it is devoted to the god of fire and forge craft Hephaestus. The second version tells the temple has been devoted to heroic tsar Theseus, so it’s other name – Theseum. The main ornament of a temple contains scenes of sports meet of Theseus and Heracles.

^ Culture and Art of the Ancient Greece
oth theatres and temples, and ancient Greeks built stadiums on slopes of hills or the mountains located near to cities. So stadium named Panafinaikos erected in 330 year B.C. is

constructed also. Originally all construction was wooden. In days of Roman empire, approximately in 140 year B.C., the stadium has been built up anew from a marble by the great philanthropist of Athenes the Tyrant Attica. Later the stadium has been destroyed, and its marble furnish is stolen and transformed in lime.

In 1894 an other national philanthropist George Averof has completely restored marble furnish of stadium. The racetrack of stadium has length of 204 meters and width of 33, 36 meters. The stadium, which is more than two thousand years, easily contains 60.000 people.

Since the 5th century B.C. festivals in honour of the main deity - the patron of city began to be considered more likely as demonstration of force and riches of the policy than as religious action because during their carrying out the increasing attention was given to theatrical performances and gymnastic competitions. Such festivals were kept in Athens in honour of the goddess-patroness of the city of Athena, in honour of the god of wine growing and wine Dionysus, Olympic festivals in honour of Supreme deity Zeus, festivals in Delphi in honour of Apollo and of sea god Poseidon.

Most well-known of them - Olympic Games, competition of athletes in which originally was only traditional part of a cult in honour of Zeus. In the beginning this festival lasted one day, but

Later a whole month was devoted to it. All wars and feuds were stopped by special heralds who rode in all directions of Greece. Best athlets arrived from many Greek states to Olympia to compete in running, long jumps, throwing of discus

and javelin and wrestling. All athlets took an oath that they had been preparing well for the Games and promised to compete honesty and keep the rules of the sacred Olympics. Winners were

called “olympionics”, they were awarded olive wreathes and cups of olive oil.

Only men could take part in the Olympic Games. Women were not allowed even to watch the competitions at the stadium under the fear of the death penalty. There was a single exception, when a woman coached her son and accompanied him to the stadium in men’s clothes. That brave woman was spared the penalty because her son excelled in many events.

The olympionics of Greece became very popular. Best craftsmen were chosen to make honourary cups, many poets wrote and recited in public poems about the best athlets. Their magnificent strong bodies inspired artists and sculptors. They painted wall pictures and made statues of marble and bronze, so now we can admire the corporal beauty of ancient and eternally young discus thrower, javelin bearer and others.

The Olympic Games had been held for about 1100 years, until the emperor Theodosius banned them for religious reasons in 394 A.D.


Changes in religious and cultural views of people, political changes, and natural cataclysms - all this has led to that Olympia - the most magnificent and popular sanctuary of Elide - was lost. The antique written sources which have reached us and samples of art colourfully told about well-known this sanctuary. People knew about it both in the Middle Ages, and in Renaissance. However the exact site of Olympia has not been certain. The opinion that it settled down not about hill Cronus, and even near mountain the Olympus.

^ Zeus

lympia was one of the main sanctuaries of Greece. According to the ancient myth, here, in Olympia, Zeus has won the father, god Cronus, having justified a prediction that Cronus will be overthrown the son just as he has overthrown his father Uranium. Cronus was afraid of this prediction and, wishing to avoid punishment, devoured all children born by its wife, goddess Rhea. To keep even one child, unfortunate mother was covered on about Crete where has secretly given birth to the son - Zeus. Small Zeus has been covered in a cave on mountain where he was reared by the goat Amalthaea. He was protected by young men who loudly ringed the weapon and struck spears in their shields when the divine baby started to shout and cry that his shouts have not reached ears of the cruel Cronus. When Zeus has grown and has got stronger, he has raised against domination the Cronus, has won the severe father and has forced him to give back the swallowed sisters and brothers. Having overthrown the father in the Hell, Zeus has divided with brothers Poseidon and Aid domination above all world. Zeus has received the Supreme authority above gods and people, Poseidon became the lord of the seas, and Aid – the tsar of the underground world. So sovereignty of Zeus has begun...

^ Aid’s Kingdom
he main relic of Olympia was the temple of Zeus with his statue of work of great craftsman Pheidias. The length of a temple reached 64 meters, width - 28, and the height of an internal premise was about 20 meters. In tne end of a hall sat Zeus on a throne inlaid ebony and jewels. The finished statue reached 13 m in height and almost concerned a ceiling of a temple. /The statue of *Zeus has been made of wood. His body covered plates of ivory, clothes - gold sheets, in one hand he held the gold statue of Nike - goddesses of a victory, and another leaned on a high staff. Zeus was so majestic that when Pheidias has finished the work he has approached to a statue and asked: “Zeus, are you content?” In the answer the thunderclap was distributed, and the floor at legs of a statue has bursted. Zeus was content.

“If the person who has tried in life a lot of misfortunes and cares with the soul full of bitterness appears before the statue of Zeus, he will forget about all the hard and terrible that the human life bears with itself…”

(Dion Crisostom, the ancient Greek orator and philosopher).

^ The Temple of Zeus nowadays

p.s. my impressions

Rest in Greece can be compared with the immersing in another time or an epoch … Quiet and slow rhythm of a life of Greeks emphasizes that impression which is created by evidence of greatness of the Greek culture of antique times.

Excursions are one of the most interesting parts of rest in Greece - the beauty and greatness of ancient buildings and monuments bewitches really, involving tourists from all over the world…

My acquaintance with Greece occurred when I was only four years. My parents and I visited the Greek island in the Ionic sea named Zakintos. It is one of the seven Ionic islands with beautiful bays, white sand, the cleanest water and huge sea turtles. Since that time Greece became our favorite resting-place. I was impressed by this country, and began interested in its culture and traditions. I read a lot of Greek myths and legends, learned some impressive episodes of the history of Greek civilization. I like Greece very much and I can’t help admiring it. That’s why I present to you this magazine and I hope you won’t be indifferent to this delightful country.


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