Theory of aging
The results of theoretical research
Vladimir Fedorovich Vlasov
Science, Physics, Head of Research Department,
Russia, Tyumen, e-mai: firstname.lastname@example.org, tel. 89129250035
A new theory of aging, which explains all the known symptoms related to aging (a short message)
Humanity has always dreamed of long living, of ways to elongate youth, stop or at least to slow down aging. Although, positive results concerning the purpose were not achieved for several thousand years. However, despite failure to slow down aging and achieve rejuvenation the topic is still urgent. The number of aged population, experienced and professional people put aside from creation labor process due to invalescence is growing; aging slows down the development of scientific and technological progress. Gerontology purpose is to find reasons of aging and search for effective methods of controlling it. Modern scientists follow the tendency of their precursors and try to solve the complex problem – to slow down aging and possibly to return youth - using modern knowledge of living organism and knowledge-intensive technologies for research. However, to reach success concerning the problem it is necessary to decide upon the main issue: to realize the reason of aging. Without correct understanding of the aging reason and aging mechanism we are not able to realize where and how to develop in order to get the correct solution and result. Without it all the research is going to be held and at random, finishing by failure. In terms of modern gerontology a number of alternative theories take place, contradicting each other. There is no a single theory of aging reasons. Each scientist-gerontologist using his/her academic standing insists on his/her scientific version on reason of aging. In order to understand the situation on reason of aging the overview of theories supported by world popular gerontologists.
There are about 200 theories of aging. We describe only some of them mostly preferable for gerontologists.
Molecular genetic theories.
A version according to which reason of aging is in the changes of cell genetic apparatus.
Molecular genetic theories are subdivided into two parts. One part considers age-related changes of genome as inherently programmed. The second part holds that aging is a result of accidental mutations accumulation. ^ Age-related changes of genome are considered in the theory without mechanism and reasons of change explanation. Mechanism of storage and transmitting of genetic information is not revealed also.
Telomeric theory. In 1961 L. Hayflick, a gerontologist, stated that human skin cells able to divide can divide in vitro not more than 50 times. Hayflick could not explain this division. In 1971 A. M. Olovnikov, a research officer of Biochemical Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, using data on DNA synthesis principles in the cells proposed a supposal which explained “Hayflick’s limit” by the fact that while every cell division chromosomes become shorter. The chromosomes have special ending sectors – telomeres that reduce in size after every doubling of chromosomes, and for some moment they are shortened so much that the cell is not able to divide any more. Its viability is gradually reduced, and that comprises cells aging according to the telomeric theory. Discovery of telomerase ferment in 1985 that completes the shortened telomeres in reproductive and tumor cells providing their permanent existence proved Olovnikov’s theory. A. M. Olovnikov has decided recently that telomeric hypothesis does not explain the reasons of aging and proposed, first redusome hypothesis, then lunar gravitational hypothesis. However they were not proved by experiments and not approved by gerontologists. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. Reasons and mechanisms of telomere’s shortening are not revealed and understood.
^ At the beginning of 1950 V. M. Dilman, a gerontologist, proposed and proved an idea of a single mechanism regulating and determining age-related changes of different homeostatic systems of organism. According to the Dilman’s hypothesis a basic part of such mechanisms as development and consequent aging is hypothalamus, controlling the endocrine system. The main reason of aging is age-related sensory decrement of hypothalamus to control signals coming from neurotic system and internal secretion glands. According to Dilman, aging and adjacent diseases are the side-product of ontogenesis genetic program implementation. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. Why does sensory decrement of hypothalamus to control signals come in the course of life?
^ Gerontologist V. V. Frolkis’s aging model stating that age and death are genetically programmed. Age-related development and lifespan are determined by the balance of two processes: aging process and “anti-aging” process. This process is assigned to maintain the organism viability, its adaptation, lifespan elongation. An important part of the Frolkis’s theory is the hypothesis of genetic control according to which primary mechanisms of aging are control genes work failure, that regulate structural genes activity and consequently synthesis intensity of protein decoded in them. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. “Are age and death genetically programmed?” Programming “device” and way of programming are not detected. Plenty of genes programming in a living organism is hardly possible.
^ According to these theories, aging is accidental processes at the molecular level. Many gerontologists think that aging is a result of accidental mutations accumulation in chromosomes due to improvement processes wear and tear in molecules. Vlasov’s commentary. “Accidental mutations accumulation in chromosomes” can occur at any age. Young organisms go over the problem easily.
^ D. Kharman (1956) and N. M. Emanuel (1958). Free radicals theory explains not only the aging mechanism but also pathologic processes connected to it (cardio-vascular diseases, immune system debilitation, brain functions failure, cataract, cancer and others). According to the theory the reason of cell functioning failure is free radicals, necessary for many biochemical processes; they are active forms of oxygen synthesized in mitochondrions – energy factories of cells. If rather aggressive, chemically active free radical leaves the place where it is needed, it can damage DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. “Free radicals - active forms of oxygen” contained in the cells from the moment of living organism origin. But they significantly affect organism at the age about 40.
“^ M. Szillard, a physicist, 1954. Investigating the effect of radiation on living organisms he showed that the effect of ionizing radiation reduces people’s and animals’ lifespan significantly. Under radiation mutations in a DNA molecule take place and some aging symptoms such as grey hair or cancer tumors are initiated. Szillard made a conclusion that mutations are direct reason of living organisms aging. With the course of time DNA repair system is worn out resulting in organism aging. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. It reminds us one the external forces modalities on DNA when “accidental mutations accumulation in chromosomes”.
^ V. P. Skulachev, an academician, names his theory “the theory of cell apoptosis”. Apoptosis (“leaf fall” from Greek) – is process of programmed cell destruction. As trees get rid of separate parts to save a whole, a separate cell at the end of life circuit should defunct and a new one should take its place. Mitochondria also undergo self-destruction; and having investigated the process Skulachev named it mitoptosis. Mitoptosis occurs in case of big number of free radicals generated in mitochondria. When the number of destructed mitochondria is too big, their decay products poison the cell and leads to its apoptosis. To Skulachev’s opinion, aging is a result cells destruction prevailing over cells generating in the organism and obsolescent functional cells are replaced by connective tissue. To the scholar’s opinion, aging is a disease what can and should be cured, aging program can be deactivated and by this mechanism shortening life can be stopped. To Skulachev’s opinion, the main of the active forms of oxygen leading to mitochondria and cells destruction is hydrogen dioxide. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. “Device” of various genes programming and the way of programming are not detected. A great number of genes programming in a living organism is hardly possible. The reason of number cells destructed prevailing over cells generated is not found.
Aubrey de Gray. In 1985 he graduated from Cambridge University in Informatics and was applied for the job of AI/software engineer in Sinclair Research Ltd. Till 2006 Gray took part in software development for genetic date basis FlyBase at the Department of Genetics in Cambridge University. He is the author of “Ending Aging”, popular scientific book in which a problem of overwhelming victory over aging by medical means during some near decades was described in details. He is a chairman and science director of SENS fund, editor-in-chief of academic journal “Rejuvenation Research”, a chairman of Methuselah Fund. Aubrey de Gray declares that science is able to prolong people’s lives radically and proposes the way of reaching it. “In a way aging does not depend on genetics as it is caused by injuries accumulated during the life. On the other hand it is fully conditioned by genetics as some species life longer life in the wild than others due to a more elaborated mechanism of anti-aging that is coded by genes.” Although about 25% of aging processes in terms of one species conditioned by genetics: this comprises the percentage of individual lifespan variations dying of age-related reasons that can be conditioned by genetics. We do interfere without having clear knowledge on why cancer tumor occurred. Medicine often acts effectively basing at knowledge that is not clear. Research workers obtaining my investments elaborate the idea of DNA mitochondria transformations in the nucleus. They consider this because most of age-related diseases connected to mutations in cells mitochondria. They officially fight with the diseases but not aging at he global scale. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. Is seems that Aubrey de Gray follows the genetic theory of aging. As he works out the idea of DNA mitochondria transformations in the nucleus. Consequent interference into the structure without a correct scientific theory on cells (as in genetically altered plants) will hardly lead to success.
^ A group of English scholars in Newcastle held an experiment over muscles using computer modeling, and thanks to which one of biological secrets was revealed – the reason of human’s aging. The obtained data are able to increase possibilities of medicine. The scholars found out that cells fix an injury of DNA structure connected to its wear during the life and transmits definite signals to mitochondria. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. The scholars did not pay attention to the main thing: why the injury of DNA structure occurs? At a certain period at the beginning of development there are no injuries then they occur, why?
^ V. Kh. Khavinson, the Director of Biocontrol and Gerontology Institute, supports the idea of a person can live 120 years and more. To Khavinson’s mind, aging is caused by protein elaboration decrease in tissues cells and consequently seizure of the process and protein synthesis initiation in the cells is bringing back youth to the organism. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. What is the reason of protein elaboration decrease in tissues cells?
^ An interesting theory was proposed by I. I. Mechnikov in ХIХ century. To his opinion, aging is a result of intoxication due to saprogenic microflora activity in the large bowel. He was so devoted to the theory that persuaded surgeons to cut off a part of his large bowel. A more favorable idea of Mechnikov was to use dairy ferments for saprogenic fermentation suppression. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. The main reason of age-related intoxication due to saprogenic microflora in the large bowel is not detected. Age-related bowel patency failure is an interesting topic to study.
^ In the middle of ХХ century D. Harman, an Americal scholar, proposed that the main reason of aging is free radicals of oxygen, active oxidizers able to damage proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in cells membranes is mostly harmful, as reaction products (peroxides and hydroperoxides) are active oxidizers, that is why the process of cells destruction obtains a snowballing character. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. The reason of active forms of oxygen generated in the process of glucose and fatty acids in cells mitochondria occurrence in the course of life.
^ The discovery of great biological clock located in a small area of brain – hypothalamus. The backbone of the idea is that organism development and aging comprise a single process. A human grows and develops because hypothalamus activates endocrine system through hypophysis in the course of life to elaborate stress hormone cortisol, reproductive hormones and insulin. Although at the age of 18-20 hormonal status of the organism is optimal, the process proceeds and leads to climax. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. What controls the hypothalamus activity? What is the hypothalamus aging process, what is the mechanism?
^ The development of great biological clock idea lead the scholar D. Radmen to a discovery. Due to age-related change of hypothalamus activity hypophysis of people over 35 generates a smaller amount of growth hormone, or somatotropic hormone. Radmen supposed that if the deficit of STH is made up through injections, aging process can be stopped and even turned around. In 1991 he described experiment results in which 21 healthy people of age 61-81 participated taking STH during 6 months. In the course of the experiment surprising results of rejuvenation were obtained: obesity vanished without dieting, muscles and internal organs mass, bones and skin density raised, depression passed, immune system strengthened, erotic attraction and potency raised. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. Activity of hypothalamus is not investigated. Evidently, in this case processes of organism growth are activated in the organism approaching it to biological age. Neither of the test persons lived more than 95 years so far.
^ Aging process is connected to external generation of new cells in the organism as professor Viktor Zuev from Institute of Scientific Research Department for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after N. F. Gamaley. Under the experiments results held by Zuev and his team a diploma for discovery was obtained, “Accumulation of aging factor in the organisms of mammals”. The main purpose now is to define most accurately what is the factor, its chemical characteristics, structure, external effects reactions. After that it is possible to detect the gene responsible for the synthesis and find methods of the synthesis slow down or biological activity of the aging factor in the organism decrease. V. F. Vlasov’s commentary. Is the accumulation of cells in the organism the reason of aging? External generation of cells has its reasons. What reasons?
Judging by these different theories of aging we can conclude that reason for aging is a process caused by many factors: diseases, hypoxia, temperature effect, metabolic output accumulation, excessive accumulation of any cells, stress, foreign substances impact, change in hydrogen ions concentration, nonsufficient excretion of protein decay products and others. Aging appears in various cell structures – mitochondria, nucleus, membranes and others; various cell types – neurons, hepatocytes, secretors, immune and other cells. The conclusion can be made that gerontologists have not found out the real reason of aging yet.
There is a theory of aging showing that the mentioned theories describe not the reason of aging but the processes occurring in case of living organism aging. Neither of the theories consider role and meaning of energetic process in the organism, connection of energetic process with organism aging. Any living organism has its energetic mechanism. Energy generation and maintenance at the necessary level and within necessary range is the basic constituent part of a living organism existence. Aging depends on physical processes that take place in the living organism. Reason of aging lies in the energetic process change. Living organism’s energetic mechanism study can defeat the aging process. Aging character due to energetic mechanism change in the organism is as follows. Every living creature appears from a seed and grows, increasing in size by dozens, hundreds, thousands times. The living organism ages because it grows. It grows because it takes nourishment. It cannot neglect nourishment as that means starvation death, so organism growth is inevitable, so aging is inevitable. Every organism owns a genetic growth mechanism. A living organism grows in compliance with the genetic laws according to physical conditions inside and outside of the organism. Growth process is provided by nourishment material and interconnected with energetic process in the organism. Energetic process provides and maintains the growth process. Enthalpy, or energy density for a body capacity unit (energy density for a body capacity volume unit is measured by mJ/l), comprises the unit creating necessary physical conditions and parameters for new cell generation. Young cells generation is possible only in terms of limited energetic conditions. We can take the energy density for young cells generation as a unit. While the organism as a whole generates energy for the full body capacity equal, for example, 100 W/hour (a comparative figure of energy flow through the surface of skin), there are physical conditions for young cells generation.
Finally, in the course of growing the organism reaches the body capacity, having which the produced energy density for a body capacity unit decreases gradually, the quantity of the extracted energy is lowered 99,9%, 99,8% and further in the course of a long period.
It concerns, for example, people of age 14-18 years old. Physical parameters for cells generation begin to deteriorate, so cells with deteriorated parameters are generated. Gradual and prolonged accumulation of aging cells takes place; these cells cannot maintain physical conditions for sufficient production of energy for young cells generation what worsens cells generation conditions and quality. The circuits repeat when the energy density lowers and physical parameters of the cell gradually deteriorate. The aging cells generate older cells, so regeneration of the organism into aging cells takes place. The circuit repeats in a period of time. Energy density decreases mainly because of the blood vessels work change.
Energy of organism. A living organism generates energy in blood vessels and cells. The energy in blood vessels is generated by shock-wave method. A patent has been received for the method of heat production. The method is unique, universal and multifunctional. Energetic process is as follows. The heart allows blood into the vessel and at the same time provides impulse of a sound shock-wave. The shock-wave presents a compression area moving in the blood at the speed of sound along the vessel’s section to the zone that is characterized by size, width and differs from the frontal and hinder areas by physical parameters, pressure, temperature and density. A chemical experiment shows that heat energy is excreted, in case of hydrogen (deoxidizer) and oxygen (oxidizer) compounding. Blood is a bearing area of oxygen containing fuel elements (oxidizer) and water containing fuel elements (deoxidizer). Fuel components composition in blood is complex and can have a changing chemical constitution. Before experiencing the sound shock-wave, fuel components undergo thermal reaction in case of accidental collision with a small concentration in the blood vessel; the bearing area features limit the possibility of controlled chemical reaction. While the sound shock-wave undergoing in the bearing area along the blood vessel’s full length in the compression area, oxidizer and deoxidizer approach at the distance enough for chemical thermal reaction to begin. Chemical combustion temperature of hydrogen and oxygen in the contact nano-area can reach 2800˚ С; in case of greater distance from the chemical reaction point the temperature decreases in proportion to the radius cube. The heat is absorbed by the bearing area that transmits the heat into the surrounding capacity. While the sound shock-wave undergoing along the blood vessel narrowing at the section to the skin surface, the energetic process is observed in the blood, in the compression area, excreting heat and maintaining average human body temperature comprising 36.6˚ С. The process has another function in the organism – provision of venous blood to the heart. The blood in the organism circulates in a close circuit. Forcing and absorbing effect of the heart providing arterial tension is not sufficient for circulation of blood with such viscosity and flow. Pumping shock-wave provides blood flow from the heart to the smallest vessels. Without the shock-wave and the energetic process blood viscosity prevents the blood circulation in the smallest vessels. Reverse shock-wave from the skin surface to the heart has lower energy, but it pumps, forces blood from the smallest vessels to the heart, provides safe circulation, safe blood exchange. It is evident that the biochemical blood composition depends on nourishment quality, organism ability to prepare high-quality fuel elements for the energetic process. In the course of time, when body capacity increases (from 14 years old as an average) the process of fuel elements preparation deteriorates gradually. Body capacity increase and geometry and physical parameters of blood vessels change (change of the ability to pass the shock-wave as in youth) lead to energetic process within which young cells generation is performed with worsening quality. Organism cover and low grade cells construction lead to cells generation with lower physical parameters. Energetic conditions of cells existence worsen gradually, changes and damages in DNA cells occur as long as other changes registered by gerontologists concerning genes and internal organs of a living organism described in all theories of aging.
|Liangzao fan senior Research Fellow, Chinese Academy of Science||Предисловие Цезарю и так называемая скромность Мишеля де Ностредам|
|Yuri R. Tsoy, Vladimir G. Spitsyn, Department of Computer Engineering||Yuri R. Tsoy, Vladimir G. Spitsyn, Department of Computer Engineering|
|Ukrainian Department of Education and Science Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine||Di hua research Fellow (ret.) of Stanford University|
|Journal of geophysical research, vol. 97, No. A6, Pages 8681-8683, june , 1992||Документы|
|Revision of Classical Quantum Mechanics Di hua research Associate (ret.) of Stanford University||Документы|
1. /Yang Xiao. WiMAX MobileFi (Advanced Research and Technology). 2008.djvu