The experimental checkout of the law of conservation of linear momentum icon

The experimental checkout of the law of conservation of linear momentum



НазваниеThe experimental checkout of the law of conservation of linear momentum
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THE EXPERIMENTAL CHECKOUT OF THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM


M.V.Turyshev, V.V.Shelihov, V.A.Kuchin


Now mechanics of the "oldest" and well explored section of physics again draws of the attention of many researchers [1-8]. Results of new experiments lead to this areas [1,2,7,8] demand to rethink a part of substantive provisions of mechanics.

The given operation is continuation of a series of experimental researches lead by authors earlier. We have set to ourselves a problem experimentally to measure presence differential of quantities of linear momentum of two bodies having equal masses; when on them equal forces during one gap time operate simultaneously. Two equal carriages on mass (on 1.120 kg), with erected on them solid and hollow cylinders (mass on 0.970 kg), which had equal masses and diameters have been produced. Axes of cylinders have been erected in frictionless bearings, anchored on a housing of carriages. They had an opportunity freely to rotate or them it was possible to fix mechanically from rotation (see the Photo 1, A).



A B

Photo 1.



Fig. 1.

The complete kinematics of experiment is presented in a Fig. 1. In a starting position both carriages (length on 0,200 m) placed on one edge of a table (length 1.6 m), where they fastened for steel cylinders by means of an electromagnet. On equal distances from them blocks 1 and 2 equal sizes and by mass on 0.42 kg (Photo 1, B) were placed. On other edge of a table two lightweight plastic rollers with a furrow at an end face fastened.

Further, in a series of experiment №1 we took a flexible solid cord and fixed one of its ends to an upper of the solid cylinder of the carriage 1 and mechanically fixed it from possible rotation. Then a cord stretched through rollers, leaving a small loop. Other end of a cord reeled on the hollow cylinder of the carriage 2 (5 coils) so that at its full unwinding it flied from the cylinder, and activity of forces dispersing carriages stopped. The hollow cylinder on the carriage 2 could rotate freely about the axis. In a loop of a cord located between rollers we suspended one more lightweight roller and to its spin axis fixed load equal 0.3 kg (a Fig. 1).
It allowed creating an equal tension of a cord and accordingly equal forces acting carriages.

For a series of experiment №2 kinematics plan remained former, but we mechanically fixed the hollow cylinder of the carriage 2 from possible rotation and fixed to it the end of a cord without winding. At the same time on the solid cylinder on carriage 1, which freely rotated, we reeled 7 coils of a cord.

On a series of photos (the Photo 2 - the Photo 8) the sequence of a motion of carriages under activity of equal forces in experiment №1 is shown. During the moment, when activity of forces has ended (the Photo 6) can be seen distinctly as the carriage 1 (on it the cylinder does not rotate) has outstripped the carriage 2 (on it the cylinder rotates) almost on 0,2 m, that testifies to presence of an odds of their velocities. After a concussion and the full stopping of carriages as there is an odds in quantities of displacement of blocks (the Photo 8).

The similar situation is observed for a series of experiment №2 (the Photo 9 - the Photo 13) with that only an odd, that the carriage 1 (the solid cylinder rotates) has exchanged a role with the carriage 2 (the hollow cylinder does not rotate). In this case the odds of the got velocities of carriages and quantities of displacement of targets are less, than in the previous experiment (the Photo 11 and the Photo 13).

The work made by a load (), was spent for increase of a kinetic energy of carriages:

At the carriage (without rotation of the cylinder) the kinetic energy of its headway was incremented only;

At the carriage (with a rotating cylinder) the kinetic rotational energy of the cylinder and kinetic energy of headway of the carriage with the cylinder as a whole simultaneously was incremented.

After acceleration, (for equal time and equal forces) carriages get different velocities and impulses (since their masses are equal) accordingly. Further, moving mechanically, they collide with blocks (equal on a weight and the sizes) and shift them on different distances and , agreeably (the Photo 8 and the Photo 13). In these case works of frictional force of system « carriage + block » will be:

and . (1)

A series of photos of experiment №1 (the Photo 2 - the Photo 8) is frames of video clip.


A Series of photos of experiment №2 (the Photo 9 - the Photo 13) is frames of video clip.

Photo 2

Photo 3 Photo 4

Photo 5

Photo 6

Photo 7

Photo 8




Photo 9

Photo 10

Photo 11

Photo 12

Photo 13



As frictional forces for blocks are equal, displacements and blocks are proportional to friction works and accordingly or to change kinetic energies of headway of carriages:



, (2)

Where,

- Velocity of the carriage 1,

- A change kinetic energy of headway of the carriage 1,

- Velocity of the carriage 2,

- A change kinetic energy of headway of the carriage 2,

- Mass of the carriage.

From here the relation of displacements of blocks from (2): (masses of carriages are equal).

Then the relation of velocities of carriages equally: . (3)

The relation of linear momentums of carriages is: . (4)

From (4) it is to draw a conclusion, that quantities of linear momentums got by carriages are not equal among themselves, since the lead series of experiment №1 and №2.

In a series of experiment №1 a block 1 was displaced on the average on distance equal 0.105 m, and a block 2 - on equal 0.210 m. Then according to expression (4) in experiment №1 relation of linear momentums of carriages: . If the linear momentum of the carriage 1 (where the cylinder did not rotate) to accept for 100 % the linear momentum of the carriage 2 will be equal 70.7 % of an linear momentum of the carriage 1. Thus, the odd between linear momentums of carriages makes 29.3 %.

In a series of experiment №2 block 1 was displaced on the average on distance equal 0.090 m, and a block 2 - on equal 0.145 m. The relation of linear momentums of carriages is: . The odd of quantities of linear momentums of carriages makes 21.2 %.

In both series of experiments, after displacement of blocks by carriages and their full stopping mechanically, not fixed cylinder prolonged spinning for a long time.

In a theoretical mechanics it is accepted to view two cases of transformation of a mechanical motion:

« 1. The mechanical motion is transferred from one mechanical system to another as a mechanical motion;

2. The mechanical motion is transmuted into other shape of a motion of a substance (in the shape of a potential energy, heat, an electricity, etc.).» [9]. On logic of the modern mechanics in the first case, when transformation of a mechanical motion occurs without transition in other form of a motion (for example, headway is transmuted in rotary motion) a measure of a motion is the vector of a linear momentum, and a measure of activity of force is a vector of an impulse of force. At the same time, at transmutation of a mechanical motion into other form of a motion, a measure of a mechanical motion is a kinetic energy of a body or system of bodies, and a measure of activity of forces - work of forces (in point 2).

From a series of experiments featured above follows that in the nature there are two different forms of a mechanical motion: translational and rotational motions. As linear momentums are not maintained, a measure of these forms of a motion is only the kinetic energy, and a measure of activity of force - only work of forces. Even physical properties of these forms of a motion are absolutely different: for the translational form of a motion this is linear displacement of a body, and for rotational – angle of rotation of a body around of an axis. Consequently we to draw a conclusion, that the linear momentum is not maintained in mechanical processes and cannot be used as a measure of a mechanical motion.

The literature:

1. Shelihov V.V., Chicherin V.G., Kuchin V.A. «О kraevyh usloviyh na svobodnyh ot udara torzah stergney pri soudarenii». - V knige.: «Voprosy mehaniki tverdogo i deformiruemogo tela».. - Moscow: Nauka, 1987. p. 105-110. (rus)

2. Patent US №1795146, 09.01.90. (rus)

3. Vitko A.V., Polet v aspektah nauki,-, MAI, 1998.448 p. (rus)

4. Menshikov V.A., Akimov A.F., Kachekan A.A., Svetlichny V.A. Dvizhiteli bez vybrosa reaktivnoy massy: predposilki I rezultaty.-,:NII CS, 2003. 226 p. (rus)

5. Menshikov V.A., Dedkov V.K. Tainy tygoteniy. - М.: NII CS, 2007. - 332 p. (rus).

6. Sazonov A.F., Physica bez paradoxev, "Phenix", Dubna, 2002. (rus)

7. Turyshev M.V. ./ K voprosu o zakone sohraneniy impulsa., ООО «VELMA. - Moscow, 2007,-49 p. -img.23-.rus. - It is deposited in VINITI 12.03.07, №233-В2007. (rus)

8. Turyshev M.V., O dvigenii zamknutyh system, ili pri kakih usloviyh ne vypolnietsy zakon sohraneniy impulsa., «Estestvennye I tehnicheskie nauki», №3 (29), 2007, ISSN 1684-2626. (rus)

9. Jablonskij A.A., Nikiforova V.M., Kurs teoreticheskoy mehaniki. Publishing house, "Fallow deer" 1997, p.484-485. (rus)




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