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UNIVERSAL TRANSFORMERS OF LIGHT FREQUENCY
IN THE OUTER SPACE AND ON THE EARTH
(the paper read on December 14 in Institute of Photonic Technologies, IPHT Jena, Germany)
Semikov S.A., Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod
One of the relevant objectives of the modern science is to find the ways of transformation of optical radiation into other frequency ranges with the possibility of smooth or stepwise radiation frequency tuning. Already with the advent of nonlinear optics it has become obvious that instead of having a number of generators, one for each frequency range, it is easier to have a not very large laser source and a radiation frequency transformer for it, just the way reduction units and gear boxes are used in the cars for shaft rotation frequency transformation instead of a number of engines. Transformation of radiation frequency in the course of going through nonlinear media occurs due to the harmonic generation effects, parametric actions, stimulated Raman scattering, phase self-modulation and so on. With the advent of femtosecond lasers a more significant spectrum conversion has become possible, for instance that into X-ray (attosecond pulses) and terahertz ranges . Herein we shall suggest a new, universal way of smooth conversion of the optical spectrum into any other range from gamma radiation to radio radiation.
In optics spectral shift based on Doppler effect is known for a long time, which is transforming the wavelength of the light λ into λ'=λ(1+Vr/c), and frequency f into f'=f/(1+Vr/c), where Vr –source radial velocity, c – velocity of light. Theoretically, this effect can convert light radiation into any other: the only thing to do is to give the appropriate speed to the source. However, in practice we deal only with an insignificant frequency shift due to a low velocity of the Vr sources in comparison with the velocity of light c [2, 3]. Only with use of powerful linear accelerators and synchrotron accelerators accelerating electrons up to the velocity close to the velocity of light, it is possible to carry out into effect conversion of ultrashort laser pulses of light which are dispensed by the moving electrons (electron mirror) into directed gamma and X-ray beams , though effectiveness of this conversion taking into consideration losses due to speeding up and synchrotron radiation is insignificant and the devices themselves are expensive, complicated and extremely large.
Doppler effect is not the only way to move the spectrum by moving the source. One century ago, in 1908 German physicist Walter Ritz predicted on the base of his light ballistic theory the so-called Ritz effect according to which not only the velocity but also acceleration of the source influence the wavelength . According to the ballistic principle the source additionally transmits its velocity to the transmitted light the way the moving gun transmits additional velocity to the bullet. That is why if the source is moving with acceleration to the receiver than wave fronts acquiring in the moments of emission the greater speeds will, as they move, catch up with one another, thus reducing the wavelength. On the other hand, if acceleration is directed from the observer than wave crests will be drifting apart which will result in the growth of wavelength. The Ritz principle of change of wavelength λ'=λ(1+Lar/c2) and light frequency f'=f/(1+Lar/c2), where ar – radial source acceleration, L – way gone by light. As in denominator there stands velocity of light squared, the effect is even less observable than Doppler effect, but in some cases this very effect can result in large changes in frequency and wavelength as it doesn’t need velocity of source close to the velocity of light.
Thus, already in 1920-s La Rosa and Zurhellen showed that Ritz effect could occur in the outer space in the case of binary stars, the accelerated motion in orbit of which could result in significant spectrum shifts due to large astral distances L. Periodic change of radial acceleration could result in spectrum shift into either red or blue side. And these periodic spectrum variations were in reality observed when dealing with cepheids what was mistakenly explained with the use of Wien displacement law Тλmax=b as variations of their temperature Т. Besides, the existence of red shift in galaxy spectra λ'=λ(1+LH/c) can be well explained by Ritz effect . According to Ritz effect λ'=λ(1+Lar/c2) wavelength λ of light, emitted by observable parts of rotating galaxy nuclei with acceleration directed from us (ar>0), must grow proportionally to the distance L to the galaxy, where proportionality constant H (Hubble constant) turns out to be close to the value ar/c for galaxies [4, 6]. Moreover, such explanation of red shift of galaxies without their flying off, without doubtful expansion of the universe due to the Big Bang can also explain a number of paradoxes of the red shift including the discovered by Halton Arp (Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Munich) paired objects, located in the same distance from us but having red shifts differing from one another greatly as well as avoid a great number of additional ad hoc hypotheses (invented after observing phenomena), including dark energy hypothesis.
Thanks to Ritz effect simple explanations for numerous radiation sources of non-optical ranges become possible, including those of radio, X-ray and gamma ranges (pulsars, bursters, quasars). If Ritz effect really exists then it can be so that we observe normal optical radiation of stars, greatly transformed by Ritz effect. Such an explanation is not only understandable and natural (as long before these sources were discovered they were predicted by Ritz effect) but also answers the question about the source of such great energy – it turns out to be common stars thermal radiation. The hypothesis about thermal nature of cosmic radio emission (for example that of radio-galaxies, quasars and pulsars) was rejected on the grounds of the fact that the spectrum of this radiation shows the falling of spectral density of power S with the growth of frequency what contradicts Jeans law. However if the spectrum of radio emission is just a common optical spectrum shifted into the red field then decreasing branch of thermal spectrum will also occur in the radio frequency field due to the shift of spectral maximum .
Thus X-ray and gamma sources (for example, pulsars and bursters) are common stars with optical thermal radiation shifted greatly into the high-frequency field due to the orbital acceleration and Ritz effect. This can also be proved by the way bursters look like: typical spectrum of burster burst is similar to spectrum of blackbody with temperature about Tc≈7·107 K . This very temperature Tc, which is now found with the use of Wien displacement law Tc=b/λmax can be found in terms of Ritz effect which increases in 103–104 times frequency f of star thermal radiation with the temperature T≈104 K. Due to this effect there occurs the transformation of radiation from optical range (f=1015 Hz) into X-ray range (f=1018–1019 Hz), at the same time proportionally decreases wavelength λmax of spectral maximum and color temperature Tc rises thousandfold. Thus, we can say that the nature long ago created effective transformers of optical radiation into other frequency ranges. Ritz theory predicts all these cosmic sources and their characteristics as phenomena based on classical Galileo relativity principle which, among other things, implies that velocity of light depends on velocity of source.
In Earth conditions distances L are extremely small that is why it is more difficult to observe and prove Ritz effect. Nevertheless, even in this case Ritz effect was observed with the help of Mossbauer effect; for example in Boemel experiment (1962 г.) in which the source of gamma rays was fixed on the piezoelectric vibrator, as the result of which radiation frequency shift on the receiver f'=f(1–Lar/c2) was observed which was proportional to the distance L and source acceleration ar . The same complying with Ritz effect result was obtained when transmitter was placed on the rotating discs, due to centripetal acceleration Δλ=λR1∫R2adR/c2=λR1∫R2ω2RdR/c2=λω2/2c2(R22–R12). However, this result was, just as in the situation with wavelength of light in the gravity field of the Earth and the Sun, explained by means of general relativity theory. In the reality this value of the effect can be explained in the terms of classiacal Ritz theory taking into account that emitting and reemitting atoms are located in the gravity field of the Earth and move with acceleration g.
So, Ritz effect can be proved with the help of a number of observations of the phenomena in the outer space and on the Earth. It should seem that possibilities of use of this effect for frequency conversion are limited: even more then those of Doppler effect. This is connected with the fact that for significant frequency transformation it is needed that the value Lar/c2 in the formula λ'=λ(1+Lar/c2) was about “one”. That is why when we deal with laboratory distances L~1 m acceleration ar=c2/L~1017 m/s2 is necessary. It is obvious that such an acceleration can’t be achieved by the man and any light-emitting device. However, it is possible to accelerate atoms and electrons up to such values; they can be light sources themselves or act as reemitting centers (as in the case of Doppler effect use). According to Newton second law electron acceleration a=Ee/m. Due to the fact that electron charge-to-mass ratio e/m=1,76·1011 C/kg, the required acceleration will be achieved already with the field intensity E~106 V/m. For ions (for example, ions of hydrogen) the required value must be thousandfold greater: E~109 V/m. Such field intensities can be easily acquired. Moreover, there exist laser devices in the focused laser beams of which values of interatomic field E=5·1011 V/m or even much greater can be achieved.
That is why effective universal spectrum converters can work not only in the outer space but also in laboratories on the Earth. To make this possible you only need to influence the beam of ions or oscillating electrons by means of strong electric field where E~106–109 V/m, to provide their acceleration after what emission must cover some distance L in hyperpure vacuum up to reemitting plate. After this distance is covered the original optical radiation is transformed into radio, terahertz, infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray or gamma range depending on the value and direction of the field.
The frequency of output radiation may be smoothly tuned by means of changing the distance L (moving the plate) or value of accelerating field. In this case due to the fact that particles need to be accelerated greatly effective transformation of optical radiation into another frequency range with coefficient of efficiency close to 100% will be achieved . Extra power consumption for generation of electrical field can be excluded, because sufficient acceleration can be produced by light pressure of focussed laser beam onto separate electrons, atoms and nanoparticles suspended in the laser beam (in light trap). Then laser light will accelerate particles and thanks to reemission produced by them will be transformed into other ranges by Ritz effect.
It is interesting to notice that a similar thing was suggested by Vavilov S.I. (who contributed greatly into development of nonlinear optics) in the year 1950, which meant to be for the check of ballistic theory. He put forward an idea to modulate the velocity of ion beam and canal rays by means of quick recharging (that is quick changes of value of the accelerating field) and to observe, whether nonlinear transformations of spectrum and light oscillations phase, which were predicted by Ritz, will occur . However, a sudden death of Vavilov in the year 1951 didn’t allow him to make the device and carry out the experiment. Nowadays, when equipment for experiment has been developed greatly the realization of such an experiment will be quite useful and beneficial especially taking into consideration the need for effective converters of light radiation.
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3. H. E. Bömmel. Measurement of the frequency shift of gamma rays in accelerated systems using the Mässbauer effect. «Mossbauer effect», Ld. 1962, p. 229–232.
4. Семиков С. БТР и картина мироздания. Н.Новгород: ПРЕСС-КОНТУР, 2009.
5. Физика космоса: Маленькая энциклопедия. М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1986.
6. Справочник необходимых знаний. М.: РИПОЛ КЛАССИК, 2002.
7. Семиков С. Преобразование электромагнитных волн в поле ускорений. Сборник трудов конференции по радиофизке, ННГУ, 7 мая 2010 г.
8. Бонч-Бруевич А.М. Сергей Иванович Вавилов в моей жизни // УФН 171, 2001. (English translation is available).
9. WEB site: www.ritz-btr.narod.ru (Ritz original articles in German is available).
10. WEB site: www.ebicom.net.
11. WEB site: www.ekkehard-friebe.de (site of Ekkehard Friebe, Munich).
12. WEB site: www.bourabai.kz/arp/index.html (articles of Halton Arp, Munich).
13. Ельяшевич М.А. и др. Вальтер Ритц как физик-теоретик и его исследования по теории атомных спектров // УФН 165, 1995, №4. (English translation is available).
14. Martínez Alberto A. Ritz, Einstein, and the Emission Hypothesis // Physics in perspective. №6 (2004) 4–28.
15. M. La Rosa. Neur Beitrag zur ballistischen Theorie der "veräanderlichen sterne", Astronomische Nachrichten, 234, 235, (1929).
16. M. La Rosa. Addiert sich die Geschwindigkeit des Lichtes zu derjenigen der Lichtquelle? Dafür sprechende Beweise aus den Phänomenen der "veränderlichen Sterne" , Physik. Zeitschr., 21, 333, (1924).
см. также вариант доклада на русском
Дата установки: 25.12.2010
Последнее обновление: 27.01.2012
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