Reading tasks in the Russian National Exam Format
В2. Установите соответствие тем А-Н текстам 1-7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании одна тема лишняя.
A How It Works
B The Impact of the Thought
^ To Have a Watchful Eye
D Challenges in Environmental Protection
E The First to Act
F Ecological Degradation
G Take into Consideration
H Hazardous Situation with Varied Fauna and Flora
1. Tanzania is recognised as having some of the greatest biodiversity of any African country. Almost 40% of the land has been established into a network of protected areas, including several national parks. The concerns for the natural environment include damage to ecosystems and loss of habitat resulting from population growth, expansion of subsistence agriculture, pollution, timber extraction and significant use of timber as fuel.
2. The Division of the Environment is the main government body that oversees protection. It does this through formulation of policy, coordinating and monitoring environmental issues, environmental planning and policy-oriented environmental research. The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) is an institution that was initiated when the National Environment Management Act was first introduced in 1983. This council has the role to advise governments and the international community on a range of environmental issues.
3. Formal environmental protection in China was first stimulated by the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm, Sweden. Following this, China began establishing environmental protection agencies and putting controls on some of its industrial waste. China was one of the first developing countries to implement a sustainable development strategy.
4. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has identified 17 mega diverse countries. The list includes six Latin American countries: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Mexico and Brazil stand out among the rest because they have the largest area, population and number of species. These countries represent a major concern for environmental protection because they have high rates of deforestation, ecosystems loss, pollution, and population growth.
5. Environmental protection in Australia could be seen as starting with the formation of the first National Park, Royal National Park, in 1879. Nowadays Australia ranks second place on the UN 2010 Human Development Index and one of the lowest debt to GDP ratios of the developed economies. This could be seen as coming at the cost of the environment, with Australia being the world leader in coal exportation and species extinctions. Some have been motivated to proclaim it is Australia’s responsibility to set the example of environmental reform for the rest of the world to follow.
6. There are many works of literature that contain themes of environmental protection but some have been fundamental to its evolution. Several pieces such as A Sand County Almanac by Aldo Leopold, Tragedy of the commons by Garrett Hardin, and Silent Spring by Rachel Carson have become classics due to their far reaching influences. Environmental protection is present in fiction as well as non-fictional literature. Books such as Antarctica and Blockade have environmental protection as subjects whereas The Lorax has become a popular metaphor for environmental protection.
7. The main issues for developing countries like Brazil and Mexico are that protected areas suffer from encroachment and poor management. In Brazil, protected areas are increasing but there is significant problems caused by human impacts. Logging and mining are potentially huge threats to protected areas. Between 1998 and 2009, 12,204 km2 of forest within protected areas was cleared, with 1,338 mining titles being granted and 10,348 awaiting approval. Developing countries need to allocate more money from their budgets if they hope to address these problems in environmental protection.
^ Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1-6 частями предложений A-G. Одна из частей в списке A-G лишняя. Перенесите ваши ответы в таблицу.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the environment, on individual, organizational or governmental levels, 1 and (or) humans. Due to the pressures of population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun placing restraints on activities 2 . Since the 1960s, activism by the environmental movement has created awareness of the various environmental issues. There is not a full agreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity, and protection measures are occasionally criticized.
Academic institutions now offer courses, such as environmental studies, environmental management and environmental engineering, 3 . Protection of the environment is needed from various human activities. Waste, pollution, loss of biodiversity and the introduction of invasive species are some of the issues relating to environmental protection.
Discussion concerning environmental protection often focuses on the role of government, legislation and enforcement. However, in its broadest sense, environmental protection may be seen to be the responsibility of all people and not simply that of government. Decisions that impact the environment will ideally involve a broad range of stakeholders, 4 and community representatives. Gradually, environmental decision-making processes are evolving to reflect this broad base of stakeholders and are becoming more collaborative in many countries.
Environmental protection is 5 , environmental legislation, ethics and education. Each of these factors plays its part in influencing national-level environmental decisions and personal-level environmental values and behaviors. For environmental protection to become a reality, it will be important for societies to develop each of these areas that, together, will inform and drive environmental decisions. Although environmental protection is not simply the responsibility of government agencies, most people view these agencies 6 in establishing and maintaining basic standards that protect both the environment and the people interacting with it.
A including industry, indigenous groups, environmental groups
^ influenced by three interwoven factors
C for the benefit of the natural environment
D all living and non-living things
E as being of prime importance
F that caused environmental degradation
G that study the history and methods of environmental protection
degrade – понижать, снижать;
restraint – ограничение, сдерживание;
biodiversity – биологическое разнообразие;
stakeholder – участник совместного дела, пайщик;
evolve – выявлять, обнаруживать;
collaborative – общий, совместный.
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания ^ , обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.
There was once a town in the heart of America where all life seemed to live in harmony with its surroundings. The town lay in the midst of a checkerboard of prosperous farms, with fields of grain and hillsides of orchards where, in spring, white clouds of bloom drifted above the green fields. In autumn, oak and maple and birch set up a blaze of color that flamed and flickered across a backdrop of pines. Then foxes barked in the hills and deer silently crossed the fields, half hidden in the mists of the fall mornings.
Along the roads, laurel, viburnum and alder, great ferns and wildflowers delighted the traveler's eye through much of the year. Even in winter the roadsides were places of beauty, where countless birds came to feed on the berries and on the seed heads of the dried weeds rising above the snow. The countryside was, in fact, famous for the abundance and variety of its bird life, and when the flood of migrants was pouring through in spring and fall people traveled from great distances to observe them. Others came to fish the streams, fish flowed clear and cold out of the hills and contained shady pools where trout lay. So it had been from the days many years ago when the first settlers raised their houses, sank their wells, and built their barns.
Then a strange blight crept over the area and everything began to change. Some evil spell had settled on the community: mysterious maladies swept the flocks of chickens; the cattle and sheep sickened and died. Everywhere was a shadow of death. The farmers spoke of much illness among their families. In the town the doctors had become more and more puzzled by new kinds of sickness appearing among their patients. There had been several sudden and unexplained deaths, not only among adults but even among children, who would be stricken suddenly while at play and die within a few hours.
There was a strange stillness. The birds, for example – where had they gone? Many people spoke of them, puzzled and disturbed. The feeding stations in the backyards were deserted. The few birds seen anywhere were moribund; they trembled violently and could not fly. It was spring without voices. On the mornings that had once throbbed with the dawn chorus of robins, catbirds, doves, jays, wrens, and scores of other bird voices there was now no sound; only silence lay over the fields and woods and marsh.
On the farms the hens brooded, but no chicks hatched. The farmers complained that they were unable to raise any pigs – the litters were small and the young survived only a few days. The apple trees were coming into bloom but no bees droned among the blossoms, so there was no pollination and there would be no fruit.
The roadsides, once so attractive, were now lined with browned and withered vegetation as though swept by fire. These, too, were silent, deserted by all living things. Even the streams were now lifeless. Anglers no longer visited them, for all the fish had died.
In the gutters under the eaves and between the shingles of the roofs, a white granular powder still showed a few patches; some weeks before it had fallen like snow upon the roofs and the lawns, the fields and streams.
No witchcraft, no enemy action had silenced the birth of new life in this stricken world. The people had done it themselves.
This town does not actually exist, but it might easily have a thousand counterparts in America or elsewhere in the world. I know of no community that has experienced all the misfortunes I describe. Yet every one of these disasters has actually happened somewhere, and many real communities have already suffered a substantial number of them. A grim specter has crept upon us almost unnoticed, and this imagined tragedy may easily become a stark reality we all shall know.
What has already silenced the voices of spring in countless towns in America? This book is an attempt to explain.
(Excerpt from "Silent Spring" By Rachel Carson)
A15 In the first paragraph the author states the plot to be, probably, connected with …
A16 Laurel, viburnum and alder are …
A17 “Maladies swept the flocks of chickens” means
A18 On the farms the hens …
A19 Anglers are…
A20 “In the gutters under the eaves” means
A21 The moral of this abstract is …
©Никогосян Евгения Валентиновна, 2012 г.
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