European Curriculum for Ancient Greek icon

European Curriculum for Ancient Greek

НазваниеEuropean Curriculum for Ancient Greek
Дата конвертации29.07.2012
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European Curriculum for Ancient Greek




At least two wise men of the ancient world, Socrates and Plato, have been protected from being forgotten and thus human mankind remembers at least both of them. One of them has spoken without having written ever, whereas the other one has held the words of the former one in a written version. In their complementary contrast the oldest founders of communication and saving information hide and reveal themselves at the same time: oral tradition and writing in characters as well as the transformation from the one to the other.” (Michel Serres in: Le savoir grec. Dictionnaire critique. Jacques Brunschwig/Geoffrey Lloyd (editor). Flammarion 1996, 9)

The study of Greek syntax, properly pursued, gives the pupil an insight into processes of thought and the manner of expression of a highly cultivated people; and while it stimulates his own powers of thought, it teaches him habits of more careful expression by making him familiar with many forms of statement more precise than those to which he is accustomed in his own language. The Greek syntax, as it was developed and refined by the Athenians, is a most important chapter in the history of thought, and even those whose classical studies are limited to the rudiments cannot afford to neglect it entirely.” (William W. Goodwin. Greek Grammar. Boston: Ginn & Company 1900, IV)

The standards are based on the Greek Grammar made by William W. Goodwin, Eliot Professor of Greek Literature in Harvard University, on the Austrian and French Curriculum for Ancient Greek and on objectives of the European Reference Frame for Languages.

STANDARDS for pupils at Level1/ Vestibulum

Competences common to lexis, morphology, syntax, texts and cultural background

By acquiring single elements of Greek pupils are able to recognize the common principles of Greek



Pupils are able

to make themselves familiar with Greek alphabet, accents and breathings

to acquire a basic vocabulary by working on Greek texts

to use the knowledge of the meaning of Greek words for interpreting foreign words and derived words and so pupils experience Greek as a base of science, policy and culture


Basic vocabulary (about 400 words, not counting easy deriving words)

World fields: same stem or family



Pupils are able

to define word classes and to distinguish their forms


Word classes: verbs, nouns, article, adjectives, pronouns, prepositions, adverbs, numerals, conjunctions, interjections.

Verbs: the Greek verb system is composed of three voices (active, middle, passive), four moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, optative) and seven tenses: present tense, future, imperfect, aorist, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect


conjugate verbs in -ω, compound verbs, irregular verbs: εἰμί

tenses: present tense, future, imperfect, aorist

moods: indicative, subjunctive, imperative

voices: active, middle, passive (present, imperfect); deponent verbs

infinitives (present, future, aorist)

participles (present, future, aorist)

Nouns : the Greek nominal system is composed of substantives and adjectives and sometimes participles. All of them are distributed into three declensions. The declensions have three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), three numbers (singular, plural and dual) and five cases (nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive and dative).


The first declension comprises the themes ending in - α which fall into three subgroups: 1. feminine nouns Nom. Sg. : - α (long) or –η; Gen. Sg.: - ας (long α after ε, ι, ρ) or - ης (ἡ χώρα, the land, ἡ τιμή, the honor); 2. feminine nouns Nom. Sg. : -α (short); Gen. Sg.: - ας (long α after ε, ι, ρ) or - ης (ἡ ἀλήθεια, the truth, ἡ δόξα, the opinion); 3. masculine nouns Nom. Sg. : - ας (long α) or – ης; Gen. Sg.: - ου (ὁ νεανίας, the young man, ὁ ποιητής, the poet).

Second declension: The nominative singular regularly ends in -ος (ὁ λόγος) or -ον (τὸ δῶρον) (Gen. Sg.: -ου). Nouns in -ος are masculine, those in -ον are neuter. The chief feminine nouns of the second declension: ἡ βίβλος, book; ἡ ὁδός, way; ἡ νῆσος, island

Third declension includes many subgroups of masculine, feminine and neuter substantives as well as of adjectives, classified according to the nature of the suffix modifying them (substantives without a suffix do exist but there are very few of them, mostly of “irregular” type): substantives in - σις, in - μα, in - τωρ, etc. (ἡ φύσις, the nature, τὸ πρᾶγμα, the affair, ὁ ῥήτωρ, the speaker); adjectives in - ής, in – ύς, etc. (ἀληθής, true, ταχύς, quick); (Gen. Sg.: -ος).

Adjectives (1st and 2nd declension: positive, comparative, superlative of the 1st pattern in –τερος; -τατος)

Participles in adnominal use

^ Pronouns (basic):

Personal pronouns

Reflexive pronouns

Possessive pronouns

Interrogative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns

(οὕτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο)

Relative pronouns

Indefinite pronouns

Adverbs (positive, comparative, superlative of the 1st pattern in –τερον; -τατα)



Pupils are able

to make a system for elements of Greek and enter new phenomena in the system already acquired

to use their knowledge of single words, word groups, main and subordinate clauses for translating texts


Syntax of the simple sentence:


a verb agrees with its subject nominative in number and person as (Ἐγὼ) λέγω, I say; Οὗτος λέγει, this man says; οἱ ἄνδρες λέγουσιν, the men say; a nominative in the neuter plural regularly takes a singular verb as ταῦτα ἐγένετο, these things happened; a singular collective noun denoting persons may take a plural verb as Τὸ πλῆθος ἐψηφίσαντο πολεμεῖν, the majority voted for war (Thucydides, 1. 125)


The direct object (= O4) of the action of a transitive verb is put in the accusative: ἐχθροὺς ἔχει, he has enemies.


Syntax of the nominal group:

Attic Greek has a definite article, the use of which is roughly similar to the definite article in French, English and German. There is no word corresponding to the indefinite article.

The definite article (ὁ, ἡ, τό) may serve as determiner for all classes of words: substantive but also adjective, proper noun, genitive (τὰ τῆς πόλεως, the affairs of the city, Καλλίας ὁ ῾Ιππονίκου, Callias, the son of Hipponicos); adverb (οἱ πάλαι, the men of the past); prepositional phrase (οἱ ἐν τῇ πόλει, those who are in the city) as well as participle and infinitive.

In Attic Greek the article retains its original demonstrative force chiefly in the expression ὁ μέν … ὁ δέ, the one … the other e.g. Οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν ἐτόξευον, οἱ δ᾿ ἐσφενδόνων, some of them shot with bows, and other used slings (Xenoph. Anabasis 3.3)

In Attic Greek the article generally corresponds to the article the; as ὁ ἀνήρ, the man; τῶν πόλεων, of the cities; τοῖς Ἕλλησιν, to the Greeks

Proper names may take the article as ὁ Σωκράτης or Σωκράτης, Socrates.

Abstract nouns often take the article as ἡ ἀρετή, virtue; ἡ δικαιοσύνη, justice

Nouns qualified by a demonstrative pronoun regularly take the article as οὗτος ὁ ἀνήρ, this man; ἐν ταῖσδε ταῖς πόλεσιν, in these cities. But this article may be omitted with proper names, as οὗτος Νεοπτόλεμος, this Neoptolemus (Demosth. 18.114).


belonging to several nouns generally agrees with the nearest or the most prominent one e.g. τὸν καλὸν κἀγαθὸν ἄνδρα καὶ γυναῖκα, the honourable man and woman (Plato, Gorgias 470c)

The adjective may be either attributive or predicate. An attributive adjective simply qualifies the noun, without the intervention οf any verbal form. The predicate adjective may be connected with its noun by the copula or by a copulative verb e.g.ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀγαθός ἐστιν, the man is good; καλεῖται ἀγαθός, he is called good

^ Syntax of the pronominal group:

1. Most determiners of the substantive may operate on their own (unattached to a substantive) in pronominal use.

- ὁ μέν, ὁ δέ, this one, that one

- τις, someone

- οἱ ἄλλοι, the others; ἄλλοι, others

2. Some determiners always stand outside the article-substantive group (either before or after it) : the most common are the three demonstratives οὗτος, ὅδε and ἐκεῖνος, πάντες « all », μόνος « only », αὐτός « (him)-self ». The three demonstratives and αὐτός can determine only one definite nominal group.

Those that are always placed outside the article-substantive group operate on their own: οὗτοι these, αὐτός my/your/himself or in combination with each other: οὗτοι πάντες, all these, ἐκεῖνοι μόνοι, only those

Αὐτός has three uses:

1. In all its cases it may be an intensive adjective pronoun, himself, herself, itself, themselves (like ipse) e.g. Αὐτὸς ὁ στρατηγός, the general himself

2. Αὐτός in all its cases, when preceded by the article, means the same (idem) e.g.Ὁ αὐτὸς ἀνήρ, the same man

3. The oblique cases of αὐτός are the ordinary personal pronouns of the third person, him, her, it, them e.g. Στρατηγὸν αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξε, he designated him as general

^ Syntactic and semantic main functions of cases:


The accusative of specification may be joined with a verb, adjective, noun or even a whole sentence, to denote a part, character, or quality to which the expression refers e.g. καλὸς τὸ εἶδος, beautiful in form; δίκαιος τὸν τρόπον, just in his character;

^ Accusative of extent: The accusative may denote extent of time or space e.g. Ἔμεινεν ἡμέρας πέντε, he remained five days.


The indirect object of the action of a transitive verb is put in the dative. Certain intransitive verbs take the dative, many of which may have a direct object : Τοῖς θεοῖς εὔχομαι, I pray (to) the Gods; ἐμοὶ ὀργίζονται (Platon, Apology 23c), they are angry with me; Πρέπει μοι λέγειν, it is becoming (to) me to speak

Dative of time: The dative without a preposition often denotes time when. This is confined mainly to nouns denoting day, night, month, or year and to names of festivals: Οἱ Σάμιοι ἐξεπολιορκήθησαν ἐνάτῳ μηνί, the Samians were taken by siege in the ninth month (Thucydid. 1.117)


1. Genitive possessive: Ὁ νόμος ἐστὶν οὗτος Δράκοντος, this law is Dracoґs (Demosthenes, 23.51)

2. Genitive partitive: Τούτων γενοῦ μοι, become one of these for my sake (Aristophanes, Nubes 107)

Adverbial phrases: of time, place, cause and manner

The different use of tenses in Ancient Greek:

The tenses may express two relations. They may designate the time of an action as present, past, or future; and also its character as beginning, as finished, as going on or as simply taking place. The latter relation appears in all the moods and in the infinitive and participle; the former appears always in the indicative, and to a certain extent in some of the dependent moods and in the participle:

PRESENT, action going on in present time: γράφω, ^ I am writing

IMPERFECT, action going on in past time, describing a state of affairs as a process, not an event: ἔγραφον, I was writing

AORIST, action simply taking place in past time: ἔγραψα, I began writing, I finished writing, I wrote

FUTURE, future action (either in its progress or in its mere occurrence): γράψω, ^ I shall write or I shall be writing

The moods:

The indicative is used in simple, absolute assertions and in questions which include or concern such assertions as γράφει, he writes; ἔγραψεν, he wrote; γράψει, he will write; γέγραφεν, he has written; τί ἐγράψετε; what did you write? ἔγραψε τοῦτο, did he write this?

The subjunctive in its simplest and apparently most primitive use is not far from the future indicative. It expresses an action that is waited for or expected.


Participles of praesent are present, past, or future relatively to the time of the verb with which they are connected: Ἁμαρτάνει τοῦτο ποιῶν, he errs in doing this; Ἡμάρτανε τοῦτο ποιῶν, he erred in doing this; Ἁμαρτήσεται τοῦτο ποιῶν, he will err in doing this

Λέγω δὲ τοῦδ᾿ ἕνεκα, βουλόμενος δόξαι σοι ὅπερ ἐμοί, and I speak for this reason, because I wish that to seem good to you which seems to me ( Plato, Phaido 102d)

Attributive participle: The participle may qualify a noun, like an attributive adjective. Here it may often be translated by a relative and a finite verb, especially when it has the article as ὁ παρὼν καιρός, the present time.

Circumstantial participle: Any attendant circumstance, the participle being merely descriptive. This is one of the most common relations of this participle, e.g. Ἔρχεται τὸν υἱὸν ἔχουσα, she comes bringing her son (Xenoph. Cyropedia 1.3); Παραλαβόντες Βοιωτοὺς ἐστράτευσαν ἐπὶ Φάρσαλον, after they took Boeotians with them they marched against Pharsalus (Thucydid. 1.111)).

The participle here can often be best translated by a verb.


The Greek has two negative adverbs, οὐ (negatives a fact) and μή (negatives an idea)

^ Syntax of the complex sentence:

Subordinate clauses fall into three categories: relative clauses, complement clauses and circumstantial clauses.

Relative clauses: they are usually in the factual indicative; negative: οὐ.

When the antecedent is a demonstrative pronoun, it is most often unexpressed.

The relative pronoun has the case required by its function in the relative clause, e.g. Ὃν οἱ θεοὶ φιλοῦσιν ἀποθνῄσκει νέος, he whom the gods love dies young (Menander)

^ Complement clauses with conjunctive

- conjunctive: with ὅτι or ὡς after declarative verbs (λέγω, ἀποκρίνομαι, γράφω...) and after verbs of perception (ὁρῶ, οἶδα, εὑρίσκω...) and feeling (χαίρω, αἰσχύνομαι, θαυμάζω...); with an interrogative pronoun in indirect interrogative clauses. Negative οὐ.

^ Circumstantial clauses:

- expressing time

- expressing cause

- conditional clauses: in conditional sentences the clause containing the condition is called the protasis and that containing the conclusion is called the apodosis. The protasis is introduced by some form of εἰ, if.

^ Constructions replacing clauses:

- Indirect statement (= Accusativus cum Infinitivo). After verbs of opinion (νομίζω, οἴομαι, ἡγοῦμαι...); after declarative verbs (which therefore admit of two possible constructions). Negative οὐ. Also after verbs expressing volition, hope, possibility, compulsion, convenience (numerous impersonal verbs in the three latter groups) (βούλομαι, ἐλπίζω, ἔξεστι, χρή, προσήκει...). Negative μή.

- Participle in agreement (= Participium coniunctum)

- Genetivus Absolutus (As circumstantial clause expressing time, cause, condition or consecutiveness; compare to Ablativus Absolutus in Latin).



Pupils are able

to acquire Greek texts under instruction on the base of text grammar, syntax and word grammar

to use different kinds of methods to work with a text, for example team work or single job to improve their social and personal competences

By translating Greek texts pupils improve their mother tongue competence and increase their reading competence.


Basic text: textbook



Pupils are able

to connect important fields of ancient life with knowledge acquired in history

to recognize elements of Greek culture, which have influence until now


According to the textbook

private and public life

Greek mythology

topography of Athens

STANDARDS for pupils at Level 2/ Janua

Competences common to lexis, morphology, syntax, texts and cultural background

Based on less deduction and more analogies and induction pupils are able to translate easy authentic texts



Pupils are able (based partly on authentic texts)

to improve their Greek vocabulary

to use the acquired Greek vocabulary for working with other foreign languages, especially modern Greek


Basic vocabulary (about 900 words, not counting easy deriving words)

Word fields: same stem or family in comparison with Modern Greek



Pupils are able

to improve the knowledge of word classes



Temporal themes: future (A., M. and P.); passive aorist; aorist (ἔβην...); type λέλυκα perfect (A., M. and P.). Future and aorist of verba liquida : φαίνω, ἀγγέλλω, ἐγείρω...

Moods : optative, imperative


irregular stems, e.g. ἀνήρ, γυνή, Ζεύς, ναῦς

Adjectives of the 3rd declension (ἀληθής, εὐδαίμων, ταχύς); positive, comparative, superlative of the 2nd pattern in -ίων; -ιστος

Particles: are the four parts of speech that are indeclinable: adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections

ἄν (epic κέ, Doric κά) has two distinct uses:

1) It may be joined to all the secondary tenses of the indicative (in Homer also to the future indicative), and to the optative, infinitive, or participle, to denote that the action of the verb is dependent on some circumstances or condition, expressed or implied. Here it belongs strictly to the verb

2) It is joined regularly to εἰ, if, to all relative and temporal words and sometimes to the final adverbs ὡς, ὅπως, when they are followed by the subjunctive. Here, although as an adverb it qualifies the verb, it is always closely attached to the particle or relative, with which it often forms one word, as in ἐάν, ὅταν, ἐπειδάν.

There is no English word which can translate ἄν. In its first use it is expressed in the would or should of the verb (βούλοιτο ἄν, he would wish, ἑλοίμην ἄν, I should choose)

Adverbs: positive, comparative, superlative of the 2nd pattern in –ιον; -ιστα

Numerals : cardinal and ordinal numeral adjectives



Pupils are able

to distinguish predicate, subject, object, adverbial phrase of time, place, cause and manner

to understand the primary and historic sequence of tenses

to apply a basic knowledge of indicative, subjunctive and optative in main clauses



with verbs signifying to be, to become, to appear, to be named, chosen, made, thought or regarded, and the like, a noun or adjective in the predicate is in the same case as the subject e.g. Οὗτός ἐστι βασιλεύς, this man is king; Ἀλέξανδρος θεὸς ὠνομάζετο, Alexander was named a God


Syntax of the nominal group:

Position of the article:

1. The noun with the article may be followed by the adjective with the article repeated. The first article is sometimes omitted. In these cases the noun has greater emphasis than the proceeding form e.g. ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός, sometimes ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός, the wise man; αἱ πόλεις αἱ δημοκρατούμεναι, the states which are under democracies; ἄνθρωποι οἱ ἀδικώτατοι, men who are the most unjust.

When a noun has two or more qualifying words, each of them may take an article and stand between one article and its noun; as κατὰ τὴν Ἀττικὴν τὴν παλαιὰν φωνήν, according to the old Attic dialect (Plato, Cratylus 398).

A noun qualified by a demonstrative pronoun regularly takes the article, and the pronoun stands in the predicate position e.g. Οὗτος ὁ ἀνήρ, ὁ ἀνὴρ οὗτος this man (never ὁ οὗτος ἀνήρ)

2. An attributive adjective which qualifies a noun with the article commonly stands between the article and the noun; as ὁ σοφὸς ἀνήρ, the wise man; τῶν μεγάλων πόλεων, of the great cities.

Focus on particular adjectives which come between the definite article and the noun when the group is definite and before or after the noun when it is not :

- τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος : τὸν τοιοῦτον ἄνδρα and τοιοῦτον ἄνδρα / ἄνδρα τοιοῦτον, such a man

- the cardinal numeral adjectives

- πολύς and ὀλίγος : with a shift in meaning in the singular / in the plural.

Other determiners:

- which always precede the article-noun group : ἄμφω, ἀμφότεροι, both ; οὐδέτερος, neither (of the two), ἑκάτερος, each (of the two), ὅλος, whole (ὅλη ἡ ὕλη, the whole forest)

- which occur strictly in an indefinite group: οὐδείς and μηδείς, neither.

Syntax of the pronominal group:

Other pronouns with special meanings:

- πᾶς in the distributive sense (πᾶς ἄνθρωπος, anyone)

- οἱ τοιοῦτοι, people of that kind

- οἱ πολλοί, most of, οἱ ὀλίγοι, few

- ἡ ἄλλη πόλις, the rest of the state (but ἄλλη πόλις, another state).

Syntax of the simple sentence:


Ο4: Τwo accusatives with one verb. Verbs signifying to ask, to demand, to teach, to remind, to clothe or unclothe, to deprive, to take away… may take two object accusatives, e.g. τὴν ξυμμαχίαν ἀναμιμνῄσκοντες τοὺς Ἀθηναίους, reminding the Athenians of the alliance (Thucyd. 6.6)

O3: The indirect object of the action of a transitive verb is put in the dative. This object is generally introduced in English by to, e.g. Δίδωσι μισθὸν τῷ στρατεύματι, he gives pay to the army; certain intransitive verbs take the dative, many of which in English may have a direct object without to, e.g.Ἐπίστευον αὐτῷ αἱ πόλεις, the cities trusted him, (Xenoph. Anabasis 1.9); The dative follows many verbs compounded with ἐν, σύν, ἐπί; and some compounded with πρός, παρά, περί, ὑπό.

Syntactic and semantic main functions of cases:


1. (subjective) Οἶμαι αὐτὸ (τό ῥῆμα) Περιάνδρου εἶναι, I think it (the saying) is Perianderґs. (Plato, Republic 336)

2. (objective) Οὐ τῶν κακούργων οἶκτος, ἀλλὰ τῆς δίκης, pity is not for evil doers, but for justice (Euripides, frag. 272)

3. (material) Ἔρυμα λίθων πεποιημένον, a wall built of stones (Thucydid. 4.31)

4. (measure) (Τὰ τείχη) σταδίων ἦν ὀκτώ, (the walls) were eight stades (Thucydid.4.66)

6. (origin) Τοιούτων ἐστὲ προγόνων, from such ancestors are you sprung (Xenophon, Anabasis 3.2)

7. Genitive with comparatives: adjectives and adverbs of the comparative degree take the genitive (without ἤ, than):

Κρείττων ἐστι τούτων, he is better than these; Νέοις τό σιγᾶν κρεῖττόν ἐστι τοῦ λαλεῖν, for youth silence is better than chattering (Menander, Monostichi 387)


Causal and instrumental dative:

The dative is used to denote cause, manner and means or instrument:

Cause: Νόσῳ ἀποθανών, having died of disease (Thucydid. 8.84)

Means or Instrument: Ὁρῶμεν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς, we see with our eyes

Manner : ταύτῃ, in this manner, thus

ἔργῳ, indeed

τῇ ἐμῇ γνώμῃ, in my opinion,

ἰδίᾳ, privately,

δημοσίᾳ, publicly,

κοινῇ, in common,

τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, in truth,

τῷ ὄντι, in reality

The different use of tenses in Ancient Greek:

The aorist indicative takes its name (ἀόριστος, unlimited, unqualified, undefined) from its denoting a simple past occurrence.

It corresponds to the ordinary preterite in English, whereas the Greek imperfect corresponds to the forms ^ I was doing, etc. Thus, ἐποίει τοῦτο is he was doing this or he did this habitually; Πεποίηκε τοῦτο is he has already done this; ἐπεποίηκει τοῦτο is he had already (at some past time) done this.

But ἔβαλον is simply they threw without qualification of any kind, or it denotes the beginning (he began to throw) or the result of an action (he reached the target).

The aorist is therefore commonly used to say events, while the imperfect gives detailed description of background.


Participle with circumstantial value:

1. Appositional:

- Time: the tenses denoting various points of time, which is relative to that of the verb of the sentence e.g. Ταῦτα ἔπραττε στρατηγῶν, he did this while he was general; Ταῦτα πράξει στρατηγῶν, he will do this while he is general

- Cause: Λέγω δὲ τοῦδ᾿ ἕνεκα, βουλόμενος δόξαι σοι ὅπερ ἐμοί, and I speak for this reason, because I wish that to seem good to you which seems to me ( Plato, Phaido 102d)

- Means, manner and similar relations, including manner of employment e.g. Τοῦτο ἐποίησε λαθών, he did this secretly

- Purpose or intention; generally expressed by the future participle e.g. Πέμπειν πρέσβεις ταῦτα ἐροῦντας καὶ Λύσανδρον αἰτήσοντας, to send ambassadors to say this and to ask for Lysander (Xenoph. Hellenica 2.1)

- Condition

- Opposition, limitation, or concession; where the participle is generally to be translated by although and a verb e.g. Ὀλίγα δυνάμενοι προορᾶν πολλὰ ἐπιχειροῦμεν πράττειν, although we are able to foresee few things, we try to do many things (Xenoph. Cyropedia 3.2)

Interrogative sentences:

The relative ὅστις (rarely ὅς) and the relative pronominal adjectives may be used in indirect questions e.g. Τί λέγει; what does he say? Πότε ἦλθεν; when did he come? Πόσα εἶδες; how many did you see ?Ἤροντο τί λέγοι (or ὅ τι) λέγοι; they asked what he said. Ἤροντο πότε ( or ὁπότε) ἦλθεν; they asked when he came. Ὁρᾶς ἡμᾶς, ὅσοι ἐσμέν; do you see how many of us they are? (Plato, Republic 327c)

The Greek freely uses two or more interrogatives with the same verb e.g. Ἡ τίσι τί ἀποδιδοῦσα τέχνη δικαιοσύνη ἂν καλοῖτο; ^ The art which renders what to what would be called Justice? (Plato, Republic 332 d)

Indirect questions may be introduced by εἰ, whether as

Ἠρώτησα εἰ βούλοιτο ἐλθεῖν, I asked whether he wished to go.

Syntax of the complex sentence:

Relative clauses

If there is an hypothetical value implying that the condition is not fulfilled, past tense of indicative with ἄν is used. Negative: οὐ.

Relative pronouns can be used as linking pronouns, like in Latin.

Assimilation of the relative pronoun: when it is in the accusative and its antecedent is in the genitive or dative, it takes the case of its antecedent; if the latter is a demonstrative, it is omitted. E.g. Ἐκ τῶν πόλεων ὧν ἔχει, from the cities which he holds (for ἂς ἔχει)

Complement clauses

- subjunctive: with μή and subjunctive after verbs denoting fear (neg. οὐ); with ὅπως or ὡς and the subjunctive after verbs denoting carefulness, application, such as ἐπιμελοῦμαι (neg. μή)

^ Circumstantial clauses

- expressing time: clauses with subjunctive and ἄν, if there is a value of generality (then, there is present tense in the main clause) or of future (then, there is a future or imperative in the main clause).

- expressing result: ὥστε with either indicative or infinitive.

- expressing purpose: ἵνα with subjunctive.

- conditional sentences:

The classification of conditional sentences is based partly on the time to which the supposition refers, partly on what is implied with regard to the fulfilment of the condition and partly on the distinction between particular and general suppositions.

1. Present and past suppositions implying nothing as to fulfilment of condition (= ^ Realis):

a. (protasis) εἰ with indicative; (apodosis) any form of the verb. Εἰ πράσσει τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔχει, if he is doing this, it is well.

In Latin: si hoc facit, bene est.

Εἰ ἔπραξε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔχει, if he did this, it is well.

b. (protasis) ἐάν with subjunctive; (apodosis) present indicative Ἐάν τις κλέπτῃ, κολάζεται, if any one (ever) steals, he is (always) punished.

(protasis) εἰ with optative; (apodosis) imperfect indicative. Εἴ τις κλέπτοι, ἐκολάζετο, if any one (ever) stole, he was (always) punished.

2. Present and past suppositions implying that the condition is not fulfilled (= Irrealis):

(protasis) εἰ with past tense of indicative; (apodosis) past tense of indicative (imperfect for present suppositions, aorist for past) with ἄν. Εἰ ἔπρασσε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν εἶχεν, if he were doing this, it would (now) be well. Εἰ ἔπραξε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν, if he had done this, it would have been well.

In Latin: si hoc faceret, bene esset (present); si hoc fecisset, bene fuisset (past).

3. Supposition whose realization is possible in the future

(protasis) εἰ with optative; (apodosis) optative with ἄν. Εἰ πράσσοι τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν ἔχοι, if he should do this, it would be well.

In Latin: si hoc faciat, bene sit. (Potentialis)

Construction replacing clauses:

Genitive absolute:

A noun and a participle not grammatically connected with the main construction of the sentence may stand themselves in the genitive: Ταῦτ` ἐπράχθη Κόνωνος στρατηγοῦντος, τhis was done, when Conon was general (Isocrates 9.56); Ὄντος γε ψεύδους ἔστιν ἀπάτη,when there is falsehood, there is deceit (Plato, Sophist 260c)

^ The moods:

The indicative has a tense to express every variety of time which is recognized by the Greek verb and thus it can state a supposition as well as make an assertion in the past, present or future. It also expresses certain other relations which in other languages ( as in Latin) are generally expressed by a different mood e.g. Εἰ τοῦτο ἀληθές ἐστι, χαίρω, if this is true, I rejoice; Εἰ ἔγραψεν, ἦλθον ἄν, if he had written, I should have come; Εἰ γράψει, γνώσομαι, if he shall write ( or if he writes), I shall know; Ἐπιπιμελεῖται ὅπως τοῦτο γενήσεται, he takes care that this shall happen; Λέγει ὅτι τοῦτο ποιεῖ, he says that he is doing this (he said ποιῶ); Εἴθε τοῦτο ἀληθὲς ἦν, O that this were true!

Subjunctive: In final and object clauses it expresses a future purpose or a future object of fear e.g. Ἒρχεται ἵνα τοῦτο ἴδῃ, he is coming that he sees this; Φοβεῖται μὴ τοῦτο γένηται, he fears lest this happen.

In relative and circumstantial (condition and time only) clauses, it expresses a general fact if the verb of the main clause is at present tense: Ἐάν τις ἔλθῃ, τοῦτο ποιῶ, if anyone comes, I do this (at every time); Ὅταν τις ἔλθῃ, τοῦτο ποιῶ when anyone comes, I do this (at every time). If the verb of the main clause is at future tense, subjunctive expresses an attenuated future (an eventuality): Ἐάν (ὅταν) τις ἔλθῃ, τοῦτο ποιήσω, if (when) anyone comes, I shall do this.

Imperative and subjunctive are both used for expressing order and defence.



Pupils are able

to begin a dialogue with an authentic text as a listener with own pre-cognition, exspectations, prejudices and the social context

to regard the authentic text as a chance to gain receptive and aesthetical skills by reading in a passive role. In this opinion it is only once the reader does something with the text, like talking or writing about it, that he or she becomes a producer of language

By translating Greek texts pupils improve their competence in the native language, in Latin or modern Greek.


Basic text: partly based on authentic sources



Pupils are able

to give a paper on Greek literature, art and architecture

to play the role of a virtual guide for important places of Ancient Greece


Catalogues of museums, Links to important websites about Greek and Roman culture

STANDARDS for pupils at Level 3/ Palatium

Competences common to lexis, morphology, syntax, texts and cultural background

Pupils are able

to use a dictionary

Pupils build a vocabulary book concerning authentic texts

Pupils compare the common principles of Greek with some phrases of modern Greek



Pupils are able (based on authentic texts)

to complete their knowledge of Ancient Greek vocabulary

to use a dictionary

to build a vocabulary book concerning authentic texts

to give a paper on the influence of Ancient Greek words in an authentic or short literary text


Basic vocabulary

(about 1200 words, not counting easy deriving words)

Word fields: same stem or family in comparison with an other foreign language



Pupils are able

to work on their own with grammar



- εἶμι (also future)

- the verbs in -μι with redoubling at present indicative: δίδωμι, τίθημι, ἵημι, ἵστημι

- archaic perfect: οἶδα, γέγονα, τέθνηκα, ἕστηκα


- 3rd declension (irregular stems, e.g. οἶς, σῦς, κύων)

Numerals: numeral adverbs



Pupils are able

to apply an advanced knowledge of subjunctive and optative in subordinate clauses

to apply a basic knowledge of indirect discourse (=oratio obliqua)


Categories of syntax:


^ Syntax of the nominal group:

The noun-article-adjective structure (ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός) is hardly ever to be found except in Thucydides and Herodotus. Similarly, the ὁ καλὸς οὗτος ἀνήρ structure, that handsome man, which belongs to Attic prose, is extremely rare.

^ Syntax of the simple sentence:


O4: Cognate accusative (Internal object): Any verb whose meaning permits it may take an accusative of kindred signification. This accusative repeats the idea already contained in the verb, and may follow intransitive as well as transitive verbs. It is most often with an attendant determiner: e.g. τὴν ἐν Σαλαμῖνι ναυμαχίαν ναυμαχήσαντες, having fighted in the naval battle of Salamine (Dem. 59, 67);Ὀλύμπια νικᾶν, to gain an Olympic victory

Ο2: Any verb may take a genitive if its action affects the object only in a part e.g. Πέμπει τῶν Λυδῶν, he sends some of the Lydians; (but Πέμπει τοὺς Λυδούς, he sends the Lydians )

^ Interrogative sentences:

An interrogative sometimes stands as a predicate with a demonstrative as τί τοῦτο ἔλεξας; what is this that you said? (= ἔλεξας τοῦτο, τὶ ὄν; lit. you said this, being what? τίνας τούσδ` εἰσορῶ; Who are these that I see? (Euripides, Orestes 1347)

^ Adverbial phrases:


with an article, e.g. ἤχθετό οἱ τοῦ πολλάκις παρὰ ἄλλας φοιτᾶν she was angry at him because he often went to other women

Syntactic and semantic main functions of cases:


Genitive with adjectives: The objective genitive follows many verbal adjectives. These adjectives are mainly kindred (in meaning or derivation) to verbs which take the genitive: μέτοχος σοφίας, partaking of wisdom (Plato, Leges 689d); θαλάσσης ἐμπειρότατοι, most experienced in the sea (in navigation)

Genitive with adverbs:

The genitive follows adverbs derived from adjectives which take the genitive:

ἀναξίως τῆς πόλεως, in a manner unworthy of the state; ἐμάχοντο ἀξίως λόγου, they (the Athenians at Marathon ) fought in a manner worthy of note (Herodotus 6.112)

Genitive of time: the genitive may denote the time within which anything takes place e.g. τοῦ ἐπιγιγνομένου χειμῶνος, during the following winter (Thucydid. 8.29)


Causal and instrumental dative:

The dative of manner is used with comparatives to denote the degree of difference: Πολλῷ κρεῖττόν ἐστιν, it is much better;

Dative of possession e.g. Εἰσὶν ἐμοὶ ἐκεῖ ξένοι, ^ I have (sunt mihi) friends there, (Plato, Crito. 45c)

Dative of time: The dative without a preposition often denotes time when e.g. τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ (ἡμέρᾳ), on the following day

The different use of tenses in Ancient Greek:

As it is not always important to distinguish between the progress of an action and its mere occurrence, it is occasionally indifferent whether the imperfect or the aorist is used; compare ἔλεγον in Thucydid. 1.72 with εἶπον, ἔλεξαν and ἔλεξε in Τhucydid.1.79. The two tenses show different views (both natural views) of the same act of speaking.

The aorist of verbs which denote estate or condition; as πλουτῶ, I am rich; ἐπλούτουν, I was rich; ἐπλούτησα, I became rich. So ἐβασίλευσε, he became king; ἦρξε, he took office (also he held office)


Attributive participle:

The participle with the article may be used substantively like any adjective. It is then equivalent to he who or those who with a finite verb e.g. οἱ κρατοῦντες, the conquerors; Παρὰ τοῖς ἀρίστοις δοκοῦσιν εἶναι, among those who seem to be best (Xenophon, Memorabilia 4.2); Ὁ τὴν γνώμην ταύτην εἰπών, the one who gave this opinion (Thucydid. 8.68)

The article is sometimes omitted; as Πολεμούντων πόλις, a city of belligerents (Xenoph. Cyropaedia 7.5)

Sometimes a participle becomes so completely a noun that it takes an object genitive instead of an object accusative: ὁ ἐκείνου τεκών, his father (for ὁ ἐκεῖνον τεκών)

The neuter participle with the article is sometimes used as an abstract noun like the infinitive as τὸ δεδιός, fear; τὸ θαρσοῦν, courage (for τὸ δεδιέναι and τὸ θαρσεῖν) (Thucydid. 1.36)

That in which the action of the verb consists e.g. τόδ᾿ εἶπε φωνῶν, thus he spoke saying (Aeschylus, Agamemnon 205)

Certain participles of time and manner have almost the force of adverbs by idiomatic usage: ἀρχόμενος, at first; τελευτῶν, at last, finally; λαθών, secretly; ἔχων, continually; ἀνύσας, quickly

Syntax of the complex sentence:

Relative clauses: for expressing a general statement in the present or a future occurrence, ἄν and the subjunctive are used; for expressing a general statement in the past, optative without ἄν (negative μή); for expressing a potentiality, optative with ἄν (negative οὐ).

The „oblique“ optative may be found in relative clauses.

^ Complement clauses:

a) infinitive: indirect discourse or oratio obliqua. A direct quotation or question gives the exact words of the original speaker or writer (oratio recta). In an indirect quotation or question (oratio obliqua), the original words conform to the construction of the sentence in which they are quoted.

b) participial: participle in predicative relation to the subject after verbs of perception or feeling and after certain verbs such as τυγχάνω.

c) ἄν may be joined to the infinitive or to the participle in an infinitive clause or in a participial clause (when the participle is in a predicative relation to the object), thus giving it a value of irrealis or potentialis.

^ Complement clauses:

conjunctive in indirect course or oratio obliqua

conjunctive: indirect questions may be introduced in Homer by ἤ or εἰ as Ὤιχετο πευσόμενος ἤ που ἔτ` εἴης, he was gone to inquire whether you were still living (Homer, Od. 13.415)

Circumstantial clauses :

- syntax of πρίν ;

- comparative clauses.

^ The moods:

The „oblique“ optative: the optative is in some subordinate clauses (final and object clauses) a correlative of the subjunctive, sometimes of the indicative; here it represents a dependent subjunctive or indicative in its changed relation when the verb on which it depends is changed from present or future to past time. The same change in relation is expressed in English by a change from shall, will, may, do, is etc. to should, would, might, did, was etc. Compare Ἔρχεται ἵνα τοῦτο ἴδῃ, he is coming that he may see this; φοβεῖται μὴ τοῦτο γένηται, he fears that (or lest) this may happen; and Ἦλθεν ἵνα τοῦτο ἴδοι, he came that he might see this; ἐφοβεῖτο μὴ τοῦτο γένοιτο, he feared lest this should happen.



Pupils are able

to translate accurately according to the mother tongue. It primarily focuses on the emotional and creative levels, not so much on a scientific one.

to deal with rhetoric figures: Alliteration, Anapher, Asyndeton, Chiasmus, Hendiadys, Hyperbaton, Klimax, Metapher, Parallelism

to deal with metric rules: Hexameter, Pentameter

to differ between literary genres (epic, lyric and narrative texts)


Authentic texts about Socrates as archetype of ethics and philosophy

Lucian as prototype of wit, mockery and irony

Pagan and Christian religion

Greek historiography as the beginning of ideas about European history



Pupils are able

to give a paper with quotes from authentic authors

to be a real guide for the most important places of Athens


STANDARDS for pupils at Level 4/Thesaurus

Competences common to lexis, morphology, syntax, texts and cultural background

Pupils are able to summarize and present topics concerning grammar

Pupils are able to summarize and present topics concerning interpretation and reception of authentic texts and secondary literature



Pupils are able

to recognize the sense of any coherent part of a text by separating the main traces of semantic,

consulting dictionary and/or grammar book only for the details remaining


Basic vocabulary (about 1600 words, not counting easy deriving words)



Pupils are able (based on authentic texts)

to recognize pecularities of inflection in the first declension,

second declension,

third declension,

irregular nouns




homeric and herodotean forms (epic, of different Ionian dialects)


Dialects of the first declension: The Ionic has η for α throughout the singular, even after ε, ι, ρ as χώρη, land. But Homer has θεά (Aeolic), goddess. Nom. Sg.: Homer sometimes -α for -ης as (ἱππότα for ἱππότης) Gen. Sg.: For -ου Homer has the original form -αο, as Ἀτρεΐδαο

Dialects of the second declension: Gen Sg. Homer -οιο for -ου as θεοῖο

Dialects of the third declension: Dat. Pl. Homeric -εσσι

3rd declension:

- irregular nouns: Ζεύς, Διός, Διί, Δία, Ζεῦ

- stems with diphthongs; e.g. γραῦς, Λητώ

Adjectives of the 3rd declension (χαρίεις)

Homeric pronouns (ὅς, ἥ, ὅν; οἱ, ἑ, μιν)

Articles: The tragedians often omit the article with demonstratives.



Pupils are able

to relate and translate the infinitive as an object (gen., dat., acc.)

to distinguish subject and object to which the infintive is related

to understand the absolute infinitive

to apply a knowledge of the absolute accusative with a participle (accusativus pendens)

to understand the use of a participle in a predicative sense



Syntax of the nominal group:

In Homeric poems and in the poetic language in subsequent centuries, a definite nominal group is able not to take the definite article, whatever the other determining elements, in which case ὁ is a determiner or a demonstrative pronoun.

^ Syntax of the simple sentence:

Adverbial phrases:

in connection with an infinitive

Infinitive with an article containing a subject different from the object affected by the verb, e.g. προσεσπάσατο τοὺς Ἴωνας διὰ τὸ τοὺς Λυδοὺς ἀπίστους νομίζεσθαι he brought the Ionians to his side because the Lydans were generally regarded as scarcely trustable

^ Syntactic and semantic main functions of cases:


Dative of advantage or disadvantage e.g. Σόλων Ἀθηναίοις νόμους ἔθηκε, Solon made laws for the Athenians. Καιροὶ προεῖνται τῇ πόλει, lit. opportunities have been sacrificed for the state (for its disadvantage), (Demosthenes 19.8)

Dative of relation e.g. Τέθνηχ᾿ ὑμῖν πάλαι, ^ I have long been dead to you, (Sophocles, Philoctetes 1030)

Dative after compound verbs e.g. ὑπόκειται τὸ πεδίον τῷ ἱερῷ, the plain lies below the temple, (Αeschylus, 3, 118)

Dative of place: In poetry the dative without a preposition often denotes the place where e.g. Ἑλλάδι οἰκία ναίων, inhabiting dwellings in Hellas, (Iliad 16,595)

^ The different use of tenses in Ancient Greek:


Absolute accusative, e. g. ἐξὸν διαφυγεῖν while it was possible to escape

Some verbs take a participle in predicative sense, where in English either the participle has to be translated by the main verb, whereas the main verb in Greek will become an adverbial phrase, or, if it remains, the participle will become a subordinate clause, e.g.

τυγχάνει ἀπών by chance he is absent or he is absent for the moment

λανθάνει τοῦτο πράττων he does this unnoticed or he remains undiscovered while doing this

σύνοιδεν ἁμαρτάνων he is aware or conscious of the fact that he is making a mistake

Sometimes the meaning of a verb is different whether it takes the infinitive or a predicative participle, e.g.

φαίνεται ἐξελθεῖν it seems as he has gone off

vs. φαίνεται ἐξελθών he has obviously gone off

γιγνώσκει παρεῖναι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους he thinks that the people should be present

vs. γιγνώσκει παρόντας τοὺς ἀνθρώπους he realizes that the people are present vs.

αἰδεῖται πεσεῖν he is ashame or he does not dare to fall down

vs. αἰδεῖται πεσών he is ashame because he fell down

Verbal adjectives in -τέος and -τέον:

In the impersonal construction the verbal adjective is in the neuter of the nominative singular (sometimes plural) with ἐστί expressed or understood. The expression is equivalent to δεῖ (one) must with the infinitive. It is practically active in sense and allows transitive verbals to have an object like their verbs.

The agent is generally expressed by the dative: Ταῦτα ἡμῖν ποιητέον ἐστίν ( = Ταῦτα ἡμᾶς δεῖ ποιῆσαι), we must do this; Ἐψηφίσαντο πολεμητέα εἶναι ( = δεῖν πολεμεῖν), they voted that they must go to war (Thucydid. 1.88)

^ Syntax of the complex sentence:

Relative clauses

- expressing purpose

- expressing result

Conditional clauses:

- peculiar forms of conditional sentences

- Αἰ for εἰ is sometimes used in Homer.

- the use of the optative mood by Homer may be similar to irreal clauses, e.g. εἴποι ἄν (instead of εἶπεν ἄν), he would have said

^ The moods:

The optative is a vaguer and less distinct form of expression than the subjunctive, indicative or imperative, in constructions of the same general character. This appears especially in its independent tenses as in the Homeric Ἑλένην ἄγοιτο, he may take Helen away (Iliad 4,19); ἴοιμεν, may we go; μὴ γένοιτο, may it not happen; ἕλοιτο ἄν (Homer sometimes ἕλοιτο alone), he would take.



Pupils are able

to cope with texts in other dialects than Attic (Ionian, Aeolic, Dorian) on a literary level

to evaluate the texts according to the rules of literary criticism and compare them to texts written in their respective mother tongue

to have keen insight into historic, social and economic circumstances which contributed to the development of the kind of literature actually focussed


Authentic texts about:

Greek thinking as a fundament of sciences

The Greek lyric as a source of different metric systems

The Greek epos as a prototype of European literature

The Greek drama as the beginning of European theatre

The Greek orators as a school of European rhetoric



Pupils are able

to present topics concerning Greek literature, culture, arts and architecture, philosophy and reception


Appropriate links to Institutes for Classics


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