I would like to talk about Russia because it is my Motherland.
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometers. It is situated both in Europe and in Asia.
Russia is a rich country. It is rich in forests and mountains, rivers and lakes. There are many important cities, factories and industrial plants all over the country. There are a lot of wonders in Russia.
There are different types of climate on its territory. It is very cold in the North even in summer, and very warm in the South even in winter. There are many rivers in Russia, the longest are the Volga and the Yenisei and the Ob'.
The population of Russia is about 150 million people. The capital of our country is Moscow.
As for the political system, Russia is a federal republic. The legislative body of the country is State Duma and the executive body is a Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. The president is the head of the state and the government. He is elected every four years.
Big changes in political and economical life have happened in Russia during last years. Our country is involved in the complicated process of formation of completely new relations in international and domestic life. First the political life has been changed. For the first time since 1917 we have started the construction of democratic society, the correction of all mistakes made by the communist regime for 70 years. The most difficult thing is the alternation of people's mentality. As now there is no such notion like “capitalism is the socialism's enemy” usual for the consciousness of many generations of former soviet citizens.
The changes in the sphere of economy are being done with great difficulties. Almost all the connections between the republics of the former USSR have been broken. The formation of the new economy is a very long process of creation of new economic connections with inner and foreign partners. The political ambitions of many countries of the former USSR and hard inflation processes in the country are the real obstacles on the way to the new economy. But in spite of all these facts we should say, that Russia is going ahead. This can be proved, for example, by the attitude to our country in the world, by the first democratic elections of the President of Russia. This event became the great landmark in the history of the renewed Russian state. We believe in the great future of Russia.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is the seat of the highest bodies of state authority.
Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. In the 15th century Moscow became the capital of Russian state. With the transfer of Russia's capital to St. Petersburg in 1712, it became the country's second capital. In 1918 it became the capital of Russian Federation, and from 1922 to 1991 it was the capital of the USSR.
Present-day Moscow is a capital of Russian Federation. Moscow has more than 5000 streets and squares taking up an area of 1000 square kilometres. The population is about 9 million, plus some three million guests coming annually.
The climate of Moscow is of the continental type, modified by the temperate influence of westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean. Winters are cold and long, summers are short and mild . The moderate annual precipitation occurs predominantly in the summer months, often in brief, heavy downpours.
Moscow is a country's major industrial centre, unrivalled in the strength of its work force and the range of manufactured goods. Only a small percentage of Moscow's population is employed in the city centre because of the decentralization of workplaces. Industry is the dominant source of employment, followed by science and research. Although Moscow's role in the country's administration is of prime importance, government as a source of employment is relatively minor.
Engineering (production of automobiles and trucks, ball bearings, machine tools, and precision instruments) and metalworking are by far the most important industries. Other important activities include the manufacture of textiles, chemicals and derivative products, and consumer goods (foodstuffs, footwear, and pianos); timber processing; construction; and printing and publishing. Moscow is the headquarters of state insurance and banking organizations.
The pattern of rings and radials that marked the historical stages of Moscow's growth remains evident in its modern layout. Successive epochs of development are traced by the Boulevard Ring and the Garden Ring (both following the line of former fortifications), the Moscow Little Ring Railway, and the Moscow Ring Road. From 1960 to the mid-1980s the Ring Road was the administrative limit of the city, but several areas of the largely greenbelt zone beyond the road have been annexed since then.
Machine building, instrument making and radio electronics are the leading industries of the capital. Moscow is the major transportation hub linked by rail, road and air with all the areas of Russia and with many countries.
Moscow is the main scientific centre of Russia housing the Russian Academy of Sciences, 78 higher educational institutions and many scientific and research establishments. Moscow is the venue of important congresses and conferences, scientific symposiums, art exhibitions, festivals and sport competitions.
Moscow is the major tourist centre of Russia. The centre of the city and the historical heart of Moscow is Kremlin. Thousands of people who visit our capital, come to see its redbrick walls and 20 towers (19 with spires) that were built at the end of the 15th century and were partially rebuilt in later years. Within the walls of the Kremlin are located the meeting places of the government of Russia. The most famous are the Bolshoi Theatre, the Tretyakov Art Gallery, Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and many others. The city impresses everybody with its streets lined with fine buildings, its large squares, green parks, its wide bridges, its beautiful embankments, churches and monuments. Among these are the former Senate building (1776-88), the Kremlin Great Palace (1838-49), and the modern Palace of Congresses (1960-61). Other features within the Kremlin include the central Cathedral Square, around which are grouped three cathedrals, all examples of Russian church architecture at its height in the late 15th and early 16th centuries; a group of palaces of various periods; the white bell tower of Ivan III the Great; the Armoury Museum; and the Arsenal (1702-36).
In 1147, when Moscow began to figure in Russian history, it formed part of the principality of Suzdal’; the date of its settlement is unknown. The development of the little village into a sprawling city dates from 1295, when it became the capital of the newly established principality of Moscow. Growth was especially rapid during the first half of the 14th century, a period marked by sharp expansion of the power and wealth of the principality. In 1325 the metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox church transferred his seat to Moscow, making the city the national religious capital. It became the national political capital during the reign (1462-1505) of Grand Duke Ivan III Vasilyevich, who unified the Russian principalities. The seat of the Russian government was removed from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712.
Moscow has survived many disasters, including conflagrations, plagues, riots, revolts, sieges, and foreign occupation. In September 1812, during the Napoleonic Wars, the city was occupied by the armies of Napoleon. Russian patriots set fire to the city soon after his entry; the resultant French withdrawal from Russia led to Napoleon's downfall. The Moscow populace figured significantly in the Revolution of 1905 and the Revolution of 1917. In 1918 the new government of Russia moved to Moscow, and in 1922 the city was officially made the Soviet capital. Large sections of the city were rebuilt and modernized after the Bolshevik victory. In December 1941, during World War II, powerful German armies were decisively repulsed at the approaches to Moscow. In 1991 the city was the hub of the discussions and confrontations that led to the dissolution of the USSR, and in 1993 was the site of an armed clash between the forces of President Boris Yeltsin and conservative legislators. More than 140 people died in the uprising before Yeltsin's government reclaimed control.
The Kremlin is the symbol of first Russian and later Soviet power and authority. Its crenellated red brick walls and 20 towers were built at the end of the 15th century, when a host of Italian builders arrived in Moscow at the invitation of Ivan III the Great. Of the most important towers, the Saviour (Spasskaya) Tower leading to Red Square was built in 1491 by Pietro Solario, who designed most of the main towers; its belfry was added in 1624-25. The chimes of its clock are broadcast by radio as a time signal to the whole nation. Also on the Red Square front is the St. Nicholas (Nikolskaya) Tower, built originally in 1491 and rebuilt in 1806. The two other principal gate towers--the Trinity (Troitskaya) Tower, with a bridge and outer barbican (the Kutafya Tower), and the Borovitskaya Tower--lie on the western wall.
Within the Kremlin walls is one of the most striking and beautiful architectural ensembles in the world: a combination of churches and palaces, which are open to the public and are among the city's most popular tourist attractions, and the highest offices of the state, which are surrounded by strict security. Around the central Cathedral Square (Sobornaya Ploshchad) are grouped three magnificent cathedrals, superb examples of Russian church architecture at its height in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. These and the other churches in the Kremlin ceased functioning as places of worship after the Revolution and are now museums. The white stone Cathedral of the Assumption (Uspensky Sobor) is the oldest, built in 1475-79 in the Italianate-Byzantine style. Its pure, simple, and beautifully proportioned lines and elegant arches are crowned by five golden domes. The Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs of the 14th to the 18th century are buried there. Across the square is the Cathedral of the Annunciation (Blagoveshchensky Sobor), built in 1484-89 by craftsmen from Pskov; though burned in 1547, it was rebuilt in 1562-64. Its cluster of chapels is topped by golden roofs and domes. Inside are a number of early 15th-century icons attributed to Theophanes the Greek and to Andrey Rublyov, considered by many to be the greatest of all Russian icon painters. The third cathedral, the Archangel (Arkhangelsky), was rebuilt in 1505-08; in it are buried the princes of Moscow and tsars of Russia (except Boris Godunov) up to the founding of St. Petersburg.
Just off the square stands the splendid, soaring white bell tower of Ivan the Great; built in the 16th century and damaged in 1812, it was restored a few years later. At its foot is the enormous Tsar Bell (Tsar-Kolokol), cast in 1733-35 but never rung. Nearby is the Tsar Cannon (Tsar-Pushka), cast in 1586. Beside the gun are located the mid-17th-century Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles (Sobor Dvenadtsati Apostolov) and the adjoining Patriarchal Palace.
On the west of Cathedral Square is a group of palaces of various periods; the Palace of Facets (Granovitaya Palata)--so called from the exterior finish of faceted, white stone squares--was built in 1487-91. Behind it is the Terem Palace of 1635-36, which incorporates several older churches, including the Resurrection of Lazarus (Voskreseniye Lazarya), dating from 1393. Both became part of the Kremlin Great Palace, built as a royal residence in 1838-49 and formerly used for sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.; its long, yellow-washed facade dominates the riverfront. It is connected to the Armoury Palace (Oruzheynaya Palata), built in 1844-51 and now the Armoury Museum, housing a large collection of treasures of the tsars. Along the northeast wall of the Kremlin are the Arsenal (1702-36), the former Senate building (1776-88), and the School for Red Commanders (1932-34). The only other Soviet-period building within the Kremlin is the Palace of Congresses (1960-61), with a vast auditorium used for political gatherings and as a theatre.
Moscow is a city dear to the heart of every Russian man.
Saint Petersburg is my small Motheralnd because I live there. I would like to talk about this city.
In 1703 Russian King, Tsar Peter the Great founded Saint Petersburg, a city on banks of the Neva River. St. Petersburg, the first Russian city where many houses were made of stone, became the Russian capital in 1712. Peter the Great wanted to make the new capital, the young city of St. Petersburg, very beautiful.
Now more than two centuries later, we can say that St. Petersburg with its straight wide streets, wonderful bridges, green parks and squares and old houses made of stone, is one of most beautiful cities in Russia, Europe and the whole world. If you look at the map you’ll see that St. Petersburg is situated on many islands. A lot os small rivers and canals separate different parts of the city from each other.
There are many beautiful bridges over the Neva River. Some of them are not very high. That’s why at night specialists raise the bridges and then ships can move on the Neva River between the parts of the bridges.
There are many famous monuments in St. Petersburg. Many people all over the world know its theatres, museums anв beautiful churches. Tourists go to St. Petersburg to have a look at the Winter Palace and the Hermitage, the Summer Garden and many other places of interest. Many of them visit Isaak Cathedral so that they can look at the city from its top.
One of the most interesting museums in St. Petersburg is the Russian Museum where you can see wonderful collections of beautiful works by famous Russian painters. The Russian Museum is situated in the Square of Arts. The famous monument to A. S. Pushkin is there.
The main street in St. Petersburg is Nevsky Prospect. It is not a very wide street, but it has lots of monuments, bridgess, beautiful buldings, shops, restaurants and metro stations in it.
St. Petersburg has a lot of symbols. Perhaps the most famous symbol of the city is the monument to Peter the Great in Dekabrists Square. Great architects of the 18th and 19th centuries worked in St. Petersburg: V. Rastrelli, A. Voronihin and K. Rossi. That’s why many buldings in St. Petersburg and even whole streets are real masterpieces.
The climate in St. Petersburg is not very mild. Winters are usually cold there, but summers are not hot. It is usually warm in the city during the summer.
The best period of the year in St. Petersburg is the period of the “white nights”. This is the time of June when it is light even at night. People usually walk a lot at the time of the “white nights”
There are many beautiful places around St. Petersburg. You can find them in Pavlovsk, Pushkino and Lomonosov. However the most beautiful place in Peterogff with its fountains, beaufiufl places and wonderful parks. When you arrive at Petergoff from the sea and see all those beautiful fountains at work, you can’t help admiring this fantastic corner of Russia.
As all countries, Russia has its own symbols. One Russian symbol is the Russian national flag. This flag has three wide stripes on it. The stripes are white, blue and red. The upper stripe is white, the middle stripe is blue and the red stripe is at the bottom. These colours have always been symbolic in Rissia: white – noble and sincere, blue – honest and devoted – devoted to friends, family and to the country. The red coulour has always meant love and bravery.
The other symbol of Russia which all Russian people know and love is the birch tree. You can find these trees everywhere. People sing beautiful songs with poetic words about birch trees and plant them near their houses.
Russia is not only cities, there exists much area where there is not any city. There are country – sides. We often like to stay there in summer. I would like to talk about Russian country-sides. Nature has always been a favourite theme for poets. Storms and adventures on the sea have inspired them to write stirring verses. Great forests have led them to write solemn songs. Mountains and valleys, hills and meadows, too, have given them inspiration. And, indeed, can you find anyone who would not be thrilled by the beauties of nature, who would not be stirred by the charms of shape, colour and motion?
I think everyone enjoys being out in the country. The-re is a great charm about gathering berries or looking for mushrooms in the silence of the wood. Perhaps you enjoy sauntering in the fields or rambling through the sweet-scented woods where as you move along you stop now and then to admire the white-stemmed birch trees or some blossoming shrubs. You may like climbing lulls or following strange trails or looking for unusual plants. At the top of each hill, at each turn in the trail you come upon something new, unexpected.
Perhaps you prefer watching insects, animals or birds. You may watch lines of busy animals as they carry bits of food to their lull-like home, or bees as they hover over flowers. The more you observe, the more you come to know about the beauty of the world around you, and you find a new interest in trees and flowers, fields and valleys and in the animals of the forest.
Russia has always been a great agricultural country. Russian agriculture produces almost all the farm crops known in the world. The total area under cultivation is largely occupied by grain crops such as wheat, maize, barley, rye, oats, etc. The rest is occupied by potatoes and other vegetables, legumes, fruits and industrial crops. In the orchards and fruit gardens one can see plums and apples, pears and peaches and berries of all kinds. Horses, oxen, cows and sheep feed in the meadows. Cattle farming gives us meat and milk. Poultry farming supplies us with eggs and meat.
The situation in agricultural system in Russia is not simple enough now. There are no state supported collective and state farms any more as it was during the Soviet period. Now there are agricultural joint-stock companies and individual farming. Russian agriculture is undergone the process of economical changes. It is rather difficult to survive in the conditions of deep economic crisis, especially for individual farmers. But we hope that country-men will overcome all the difficulties of our times and our agriculture will make steady advances, that will naturally mean better living standards for the Russian people.
It happened in 1812. Russia was in great danger. Napoleon and his army were moving towards Russia. Napoleon wanted to conquer Russia as practically all of Europe now depended on him, Russia did not. Napoleon was sure he could easily win the war against Russia.
At the beginning of the war, the Russian army was moving back, leaving Russian lands for the enemy. Napoleon’s army was stronger and there were more soldiers in it. Though Russian soldiers and officers fought bravely they couldn’t win the battles against the enemy. Napoleon was moving to Smolensk- the “key city” of Russia. Russian people called Smolensk the “key city” because it locked the road to Moscow.
In August 1812, the two armies had a terrible battle in Smolensk. A lot of people were killed on both the sides. There was no food in the city. The Russian army left Smolensk in ruins. The people of Smolensk left the city along with the Russian army.
Napoleon’s army came into the empty city of Smolensk but couldn’t find anything in it. They left Smolensk and began to move to Moscow.
Russia was in danger as never before. That’s why the Russian tsar, Alexander I invited the famous Russian general Michael Kutuzov to give a fight to Napoleon. He chose the field near the settlement of Borodino for the battle. On the seventh of September 1812 the famous battle began. It was the greatest fight between the Russian and French armies. The Russian soldiers were ready to die but not to move back. They fought for the independence of their country. They couldn’t imagine their Motherland under Napoleon – under the enemy.
The famous battle of Borodino was the beginning of Great Victory over Napoleon in the war of 1812.
All Russian people know the names, Alexander Suvorov and Michael Kutuzov. They are two famous generals.
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov was born in 1729. He was a noble, honest man, devoted to gis country and his people. Suvorov took part in many wars. He had a lot of victories because he knew army life very well. Suvorov was not a kind general, but he had a kind heart. He loved his soldiers and they lover him. His soldiers were never hungry and his officers took care of the soldiers, though certainly their life was not at alll easy. Suvorov taught his soldiers and officers to be brave; he taught them to win in the battles against the enemy. His soldiers were never afraid of the enemy, even when the enemy was very strong.
Michael Kutuzov was Suvorov’s pupil. He was born in 1745 in St. Petersburg. His father was an engineer in the Russian army. Little Michael eas a kind, clever boy. Their family was very hospitable. Michael had a lot of friends and was an excellent pupil. He was good at maths, and knew many foreign languages. When he became an officer he took part in many battles. He was a brave and honest officer. Kutuzov believed in Russian soliders. He taught them the art of winning.
When Kutuzov was forty – five years old he became a general. During the war of 1812 Kutuzov fouhgt a lot of battles. He was an old man by then, but he won practically all of them. The famous battle of Borodino was the first Russian victory of the war. After that it took Kutuzov only three months to win the war completely. Napoleon ran away from Russia. Russia again became free and independent.
Whoever comes to Russia always finds wonderful people who live in different cities, settlements and villages. Russian people are talanted. We can name many of those who are well-known all over the world.
In many countries people read novels by Anton Cheknov, Leo Tolsoty, Feodor Dostoevsky. You can see plays by Chekhov in New York and Paris, in London nad Delhi. People on many different continents listen to beautiful music by Peter Tchaikovsky and Michael Glinka. Different people like to listen to the Russian songs. Russian people have made many discoveries in different fields of science and inudstry, medicine and culutre. People all over the world know the names of Yuri Gagarin and other Russian cosmonauts, as well as the name of Sergei Korolyov. Russia has many brilliant pilots and workers, teachers and dancers, engineers and doctors. In fact there are excellent specialists in every field.
When foreign guests leave Russia they usually say different things about the country. Someof them like it, others do not. They often criticize many things in Russia. But practically everybody says that Russian people are wonderful.
I'm proud of living in Russia which has always been famous for its people. They are industrious, kind, open, independent, noble, honest, devoted, brave, peaceful, clever, hospitable and friendly. Russia has given the world many famous people in all fields of life. But I think the most outstanding figure of Russia is Micael Lomonosov and I would like to talk about him.
Mikhael Lomonosov is the father of the Russian science, an outstanding poet, the founder of Russian literature. Michael Lomonosov was born in 1711 in Arkhangelsk province. He liked to spend his time fishing with his father. He began to read himself when he was a little boy. He wanted to study and when he was 19 he went on foot to Moscow. He decieded to enter the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy. He entered it and six years later in 1736 he was sent abroad to complete his studies in chemistry and mining. Lomonosov worked hard and he became a great scientist. Lomonosov was a physicist, a painter, an astronomer, a geographer, a historian and a statesman.
Michael Lomonosov made a telescope. He observed a lot of stars and planets with his telescope. Lomonosov wrote the first scientific grammar of the Russian language. He wrote many poems. Lomonosov built a factory near Petersburg. It was the factory, where glass was produced. He made a portrait of Peter the First of pieces of glass. Lomonosov was the founder of the fist Russian University. This University is named after Lomonosov and it is situated in Moscow. Mikhael Lomonosov died in 1765. But people know and remember him.
So, I think that interesting personalities we call outstanding and famous people. We can say that many facts of their life and activities impress us. They all are hardworking and creative people. Some political figures are interesting personalities. We respect them for many their makes. Interesting people inspire us. Some of us would like and hope to be an interesting personality. I think we need such people.
Within several centuries of the history Russia was a monarchy. On Russian throne the kings, emperors and empresses rules in Kiev, in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Up to the end of the 16th centuriy the Ruricovitch dynasty ruled in our country. Vladimir Monomah, Prince Alexander Neva, the founder of Moscow Yury Dolgoruky, Daniel Aleksandrovich and Ivan Kalita, Dmitry Don, Ivan III, IV Terrible, Vladimir the Sacred and Yaroslav the Wise belonged to that dynasty. I would like to talk about Kiev because the history of Russia began in Kiev.
iev is the capital of Ukraine. It is a city - hero, the centre of the Kiev region, a port on the Dnepr River. It is a railway junction. The population of Kiev is 2635 thousand inhabitants. The Underground exists here. It was founded in 1960. 18 high schools, 15 theatres, 30 museums. The well-known museums are the literary and art museum of Т. Shevchenko, historical museum, the Ukrainian fine arts museum, the Russian art museum, western and east art, national architects and a life, a history of Kiev and others. Kiev was founded in the 5th century. Kiev has become known in the manyscripts in 860. In the beginning of the 9th century
Kiev is the capital of the the Kiev Russia. In 1240 it was destroyed by Tatars. In 1947-54 the main street of city is Kreshatnick.
Prince Yuri Dolgoruki was Prince of Vladimir and Suzdal and a clever man. He was strong and brave and he fought a lot. Some years passed and he became Prince of Kiev, too. Kiev was the main city of the country then. It was the capital of Kievskaya Russ. It was difficult to live and rule in Kiev and in Vladimir at the same time. The cities were very far fron each other. So Yuri Dolgoruki was ruling in Kiev and his son Andrei was ruling in Vladimir.
Once Prince Yuri Dolgouruki asked the old wise man, his adviser, to come and talk to him. This is what the Prince said: “My old man, I’m getting old. Before I die I would like to visit my native lands. I would like to speak to my son Andrei. I would like to walk the streets of Vladimir. Let’s travel to the North.”
So, they started out. Yuri Dolgoruki always travelled with a lot of people. One day they were in the dark forest. Prince Yuri suddenly saw a large white cloud in front of them. They understoodn’t that it was. Suddenly the cloud became a huge animal with three hads. Its skin was of many colours. The prince’s men stood still in amazement. Then, one man moved foreward and the animal disapeared.
The old wise man said that there will be a strong city here because the animal was strong, the city will have 3 sides because the animal had 3 heads. And the animal’s skin meant that people from different places will come to live here.
Yuri Dolgoruki said that it is clever and that he founded many strong cities. He thought that it was true.
Some time later, they reached one bank of the Moskva River. The host of the place was boyarin Stepan Kuchko. He closed the doors of his city, butYuri Dolgoruki wanted to get in. There was the Kuchko’s forteress situated. He thought that it was the enemy and he went in. He looked at the forteress and the Moskva River. So, he named the city Moscow.
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Журнал "Россия -xxi" на сайте www russia-21. ru С. Кургинян «Кризис и другие» Завтра No: 7
|My country Russia|
|From russia with love||From russia with love|
|Russia phys||Российские реалии фондового рынка требуют максимально наукоемких программных решений Беседа со Старшим консультантом подразделения ит-консалтинга компании Siemens Business Services Russia, к т. н. Алексеем Недосекиным|
|Address: Moscow, Russia||Address: Moscow, Russia|