Lectures of the Yakovlev A.I. (Яковлев А.И.), Doctor of Engineering Science, professor, academician of the Russian and International Engineering Academies, on a subject: “Control and decision-making systems under conflict”
The offered lectures contain materials covering the modern condition of the intensively developing branch of the theory of control and decision-making systems under conflict and uncertainties connected therewith. A conflict is considered to be the dominant factor at formation of control and decision-making in complex socio economic, organizational and technological systems. The conflicts’ classification is conducted and their models for research of control and decision-making efficiency are offered [1-8].
The methods of adaptive, game and intellectual control and decision-making under conflict for various types of uncertainties are analyzed. The novelty of the research approach offered is the synthesis of adaptation and self-organizing methods, which found wide application in the control theory, and methods of game theory, becoming the research instrument of conflict situations in socio economic systems today (research works of the Nobel Prize laureates John Nash, John Harsanyi, Reinhard Selten, Robert Aumann and Thomas Schelling).
The lectures are quite accessible to post-graduate students and university students specializing in technical and socio economic branches of science. They are of interest, first of all, of those experts, who conduct researches in the field of operations research, control theory, strategic and operative decision-making in public administration and business, as well as for competitive control and marketing strategies creation.
Lecture No.1. “About modern methods of conflict analysis in socio economic, organizational and technological systems”
The examples of the following conflicts are considered: military, economic, ecological, social, technological, influencing essentially the development of individuality, business and national safety. Modern methods of conflict analysis are analyzed: the systems approach, information method, adaptive methods etc.
Lecture No. 2. “Conflict and its models”
In this lecture the basic concepts of conflict, decision-making and optimal decisions are defined, decision-making methods and control optimization methods under conflict are analyzed.
The concept of decision optimality in game is based on the concept put forward by Neumann and Morgenstern, meaning that any normative theory recommending the players how to conduct the game should choose balance in each game. The widespread principle of optimality is considered to be the Nash balance, named in honor of the Nobel laureate J. Nash. The general theory of balance choice in games of Harsanyi - Selten, ensuring the unique decision-making is analyzed.
Lecture No. 3 “Control systems under conflict”
Depending on a kind of uncertainty different problems of optimum control arise under conflict. Special cases of such class of problems are the control problems with unknown parameters, which are controlled by opponents or competitors. In these cases optimum control will be generated on the basis of optimization methods by solving a variational problem with uncertain parameters and by using game solvers, the algorithm of which is determined on the basis of game theory methods.
Lecture No. 4 “Strategic decisions under conflict”
A great many factual situations of strategic decision-making under conflict are connected with the lack of information about competitors’ activity in the market, actual market condition and development, possible variants of competition and development of social, economic, political, technological and ecological factors influencing significantly the competitiveness and further development of demand and consumption of goods and services.
The models and methods of solving the problems of strategic decisions’ formation are considered in the lecture.
Alongside with the standard classification of uncertainties in the course of strategic decision-making under conflict by their kinds the classifications by types of their mathematical description (parametrical and functional), by key elements of strategy and by other attributes connected with competitiveness, firm development and economic policy models are used.
The examples of strategic decisions under conflict for various applications are considered in the lecture.
Lecture No. 5 “Adaptation and self-organization systems under conflict”
The algorithms of adaptation and self- organization under conflict provide fulfillment of two basic functions. Firstly, they carry out identification of uncertainties on the basis of working information processing, i.e. in the course of decision in conflict, made on the basis of a priori information, which contains all types of uncertainties. Secondly, the algorithms of adaptation make the decision correction in the course of its realization on the basis of the working information obtained.
Thus, as opposed to traditional approaches, the adaptive decisions and control under conflict allow to increase their efficiency according to results of the analysis of decision and control under conflict on the basis of monitoring of the basic factors and indicators (factors’ threshold values) of efficiency of decision or control in practice.
Lecture No. 6 “Definition of problems of determination of optimum control systems with solvers under conflict”
In recent years great attention in the Russian and foreign literature was paid to a problem of finding optimum decisions and control. The basic concept of both control and decision determination was determining the «best» of them in one or another way while comparing.
The determination of optimum decisions has complicated essentially under conflict, as an uncertainty in the system of factors and criteria appeared, that has resulted in formulation of new optimization problems connected with multi-objectiveness and uncertainty of actions of persons (players, coalitions), participating in conflict, and that actually has made it necessary to consider various game models and optimization principles.
Various statements of game problems of optimum decision determination depending on conflict characteristics are considered and their decisions using concrete examples are given in the lecture.
Lecture No. 7. “Self-learning control and decision-making systems”
Self-learning control and decision-making systems are the new class of technical systems, concerning which researches in various spheres of application are conducted while solving the problems of control of mobile and complex technological objects (productions, nuclear stations, space and air, water and underwater machines). The principles of construction of training systems using stochastic iterative algorithms and features of decision-making under conflict are analyzed.
Lecture No. 8 “Systems of man-machine control and decision-making in conflict”
Various types of systems of man-machine control under conflict - manual, semi-automatic and automated, - are considered in the lecture. The rates and assessment criterion of efficiency of human-operator’s actions are indicated. The problems of optimization of the system of man-machine control and decision-making in conflict are formulated.
Lecture No. 9 “Adaptive - game systems and decisions”
The interest in integration of control and decision-making methods under conflict has increased now. The methods of researches developed for the control theory were applied successfully in the decision-making theory, at first - to investigate complex technical and man-machine systems, and then for decision-making in socio economic systems. However for a long time adaptive and game decisions have been developing using different methodical fundamentals that not only hindered the development of effective decisions in conditions of uncertainty, but also made it impossible to share them in decision-making in conditions of a great number of uncertainties. At the same time the need for development of complex decisions in conditions of different types of uncertainties, arising in various conflict situations, made it necessary to develop methods providing realization of adaptive and game algorithms in decision-making (of algorithms of decision-making on the basis of methods of the theory of games) simultaneously.
Comparative analysis of adaptive, game and adaptive - game strategic decisions is carried out in the lecture.
The basic approaches to decision-making under conflict, considered in the lecture, are formed on the basis of integration of methods of the theory of adaptation and the game theory.
Lecture No. 10 “Intellectual systems under conflict”
The new direction of decision-making and control under conflict are information systems on the basis of artificial intelligence, which allow to make strategic decisions on the basis of knowledge use. The classification of intellectual systems of decision-making and control, new results in their designing are examined and examples of solving applied problems are cited.
New technologies of making intellectual decisions using the Internet and corporate network for collecting, storing, processing and distributing information are analyzed in the lecture. That allows to form large volumes of authentic information for analytical work and to prepare operatively the necessary documents at group team- work.
Conclusion “The prospects of development of the theory of control and decision-making under conflict”.
Various principles, methods and problems of determination of optimum systems of control and decision-making under conflict in various scopes - social - technical, innovation, nature management, technological and organizational - are considered in the lectures. The lectures’ materials allow making the conclusion that if we have modern computer facilities there appears the possibility of successful decision of problems of optimization of control and decision-making in diverse scopes of person’s activity, that is of great practical significance. The perspective trend of development of the theory of decision-making and control under conflict is research of a new class of systems connected with adaptive - game and intellectual systems. The practical application finds its use in information-analytical centers of government, electronic government, electronic trade, intellectual cabinet of a leader, in creation of virtual places for TV-workers, of virtual firms and other new institutes of personal activity.
1. Andreev N.I. The theory of statistically optimal control systems. M.: Nauka, 1980 (In Russian).
2. Yakovlev A.I. Game approach to functions distribution in the system «person - automatic device». – Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Technical cybernetics. 1976, No.3, pp. 47-57 (In Russian).
3. Technical systems efficiency. Volume 3 / Edited by academician V.F.Utkin, prof. Y.V. Kruchkov // Authors: Torbin V.U., Okhotnikov G.N., Yakovlev A.I. etc. - M.: Machinostroeniye, 1988, 285 p. (In Russian).
4. Yakovlev A.I. Determination of optimum weighting function in adaptive - game strategies of uncertainty resolution in signals influencing a system. - Automatics and telemechanics, No. 2, 1976, pp. 78-82 (In Russian).
5. Yakovlev A.I. Determination of statistically optimal systems by consistently used fidelity criterion. - Automatics and telemechanics, No. 11. 1989, pp. 92-102 (In Russian).
6. Yakovlev A.I. Synthesis of adaptive - game control systems of mobile objects / Theses of the Reports of XIIIth All-Union meeting on control problems. - Tallinn: the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, VINITI (ВИНИТИ), 1980, - pp. 91-95 (In Russian).
7. Yakovlev A.I. Modeling and optimization of adaptive - game systems / Scientific - methodical materials. - M.: MO USSR, 1992, 294 p. (In Russian).
8. Problems of determination of competitive types of economic activity / Edited by Volkov V.I., Doctor of Economics // Authors: Volkov V.I., Komkov N.I., Yakovlev A.I. etc. - M.: FGU NII RINKZE (ФГУ НИИ РИНКЦЭ), 2005, 18 p. (In Russian).
9. Yakovlev A.I., Katys G.P., Katys P.G. Virtual reality - new information technology. - M.: “Economics and information science”, 1999, 174 p. (In Russian).
10. Systems of semi-automatic control of space ships simulation / Edited by professor Yakovlev A.I. // Authors: Beregovoi G.T., Yakovlev A.I., Vasilez V.M., Tumanov A.V., Sukhanov E.D. - M.: Machinostroeniye, 1986, 280 p. (In Russian).
11. А. I. Yakovlev, V. V. Vasilez, Hybrid Complex of the Aircraft intellectualized control systems simulation at the stage of their research projecting. AIAA-93-3559-CP, pp. 74-80.
12. Yakovlev A.I. Information-analytical maintenance of strategic decisions of government institutions. – St.P.: Xth St.-Petersburg international conference ‘REGIONAL COMPUTER SCIENCE – 2006”, 2006, pp. 22-23 (In Russian).
13. Engineering directory on space technology. Second edition/ Edited by professor A.V. Solodov / Authors: Safronov Y.P., Yakovlev A.I. etc. - M.: Voenizdat, 1977, 430 p. (In Russian).
14. A.I. Yakovlev Global safety and transition on the way of post-industrial development / Chapter in “Economic and national safety” textbook // Edited by E.A. Oleinikov. - M.: Publishing house “Examen” 2004, pp. 79-125 (In Russian).
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