Subject Ontology icon

Subject Ontology

НазваниеSubject Ontology
Дата конвертации28.08.2012
Размер9.31 Kb.

I decided to share with You my concept of Subject (Living Being). May be it will be interesting for You.

  1. I mean under Subjects not only biological organisms but also social groups (nations, states, humanity), social roles (e.g. role of Mother or Father, or Director, etc.), different states of consciousness (e.g. hearing of music, seeing of picture, perception, thinking, etc.)

  2. Therefore biological definitions of Living being are not sufficient. A more universal definition of Subject is needed. In general case, Subjects can be emboded into different ontologies (e.g. biological or social), they can have different bodies (e.g. trivial physical organs of biological organism or means of social power), different values.

  3. I shall use the term “ontology” in the sense of a possible world, including virtual realities of computer games, literature ontologies (e.g. ontology of “Karamazov Brothers” by Dostoewski, etc.). However “strong ontologies”, e.g. physical world, are not excluded here.

  4. I suppose Subject is a kind of ontology (possible world). It is a special case of ontology, which can be called a Subject Ontology. Subject Ontologies are in opposition to so called Object Ontologies. Object Ontology does not depend on the fenomenon of life. If any subject were killed Object Ontology could not essentially change after this (it is, for example, the classical physical picture of the world). Otherwise, Subject Ontology is a reality “through the eyes and eares” of a living being. It is a reality of everyday life of a man or an animal. Concept of Subject is concept of Subject Ontology (in other words, subject is a little world, or “likeworld principle”).

  5. Every Ontology has own space and time, own matter, system of things, laws, senses, aims. However, Wittgenstein proposed a new approach to the investigation of any ontology. This is a concept of ontology as a set of possible states of affairs typical for this ontology. I shall accept this idea in the following form. Ontology U (universe) is a set {u : u is a state of affairs and P(u)}, where P is a predicate, and u is described by a set of parameters (p1,p2,…,pn), or atomic states of affairs. A non strong order  is defined here, where u’  u means that “state of affairs u’ is a sub-state of state of affairs u”.

  6. Further I shall accept the idea that every subject has own body in an ontology. If subject S acts in ontology U, then S has a body B in U. Namely, there exists a local body b(u) for every state of affairs u  U. b(u) is a sub-state for u, i.e., b(u)  u. If body is absent in u, then we can introduce an empty state of affairs 0, and b(u) = 0 in this case. Under this convention, body B is the set {b(u) : u  U} of all local bodies of the subject. One can also say that body B is a sub-ontology of ontology U.

  7. Third part of the concept “Subject Ontology” is a principle, which provides system of values of the subject. In general case, ontology U is not done for subject as a neutral principle. Subject can estimate every state of affairs as more or less favourable for itself. I shall express this fundamental possibility of the subject as a determination of a functional : U  [0,1], which takes each state of affairs u to a number (u) from 0 to 1. If (u) = 1, then u is a most favourable state of affairs for subject. If (u) = 0, then u is a most unfavourable state of affairs for subject. Intermediate situation is defined in the other cases, when 0 < (u) < 1. Number (u) is called a degree of itself of subject.

  8. Now Subject Ontology S can be defined as three , where U is an ontology, B is a body,  is a functional  : U[0,1]. From this point of view, activity of any subject is expressed in a Rule “to raise degrees of itself or to prevent their fall”. I shall call this highest subject norm as a Law of Subjectness.

  9. This model can be applied to different problems of human science. For example, different feelings can be formalized by means of this model. Let a subject ontology S = be defined. Let [u,u’] be a segment of sets of affairs from the first u to the last u’. If -function raises on [u,u’], i.e., (u) < (u’), then we can call [u,u’] as (+)-action (plus-action) for S and designate it as +[u,u’]. By analogy, if -function falls down on [u,u’], i.e., (u) > (u’), then we can call [u,u’] as (-)-action (minus-action) for S and designate it as -[u,u’]. Feeling of a plus-action +[u,u’] is the affect of pleasure (in accordance with Spinoza “Ethics”, for example). Feeling of a minus-action -[u,u’] is the affect of displeasure. Let X be a cause (necessary condition) of action [u,u’] in the subject ontology S (i.e., in the perception of subject S). Let us designate this subject construction as X[u,u’]. If action [u,u’] has a valency (i.e. is a plus- or minus-action), then X+[u,u’] is a unity of subject concepts X[u,u’] and +[u,u’], i.e., X+[u,u’] is a plus-action +[u,u’], where X is a cause of this action. The case X-[u,u’] is the same. Then feeling of state X+[u,u’] is an affect of sympathy to X. Feeling of state X-[u,u’] is an affect of antipathy to X. X as X+[u,u’] can be called as plus-principle. X as X-[u,u’] can be called as minus-principle. At last, let p be a probability of action [u,u’] in the perception of subject S. Let us designate action [u,u’] with probability p as p[u,u’]. If 0 < p < 1, then feeling of p+[u,u’] is affect of hope on plus-action +[u,u’]. If 0 < p < 1, then feeling of p-[u,u’] is affect of fear of minus-action -[u,u’].

  10. Therefore language of Subject Ontologies could be a universal language of human sciences with the help of which many interesting human concepts could be expressed in a more strict and universal form.


Subject Ontology iconSubject Ontology. Subject Ontologies are in opposition to so called Object Ontologies

Subject Ontology iconProjectively modal ontology

Subject Ontology iconProjectively modal ontology vyacheslav Moiseev

Subject Ontology iconSubject

Subject Ontology iconNbr subject

Subject Ontology iconДокументы
1. /ontology.rtf
Subject Ontology iconThe hot polemics over the subject is likely caused by the

Subject Ontology iconHere it comes to subject the terror you forgot No memories from the past

Subject Ontology iconLecture No. 1
Яковлев А. И., Doctor of Engineering Science, professor, academician of the Russian and International Engineering Academies, on a...
Subject Ontology iconDate: Mon, 23 Aug 1999 20: 21: 25 -0700 From: "glen r. Kahler" (browsers@flash net) Reply-To: browsers@flash net Organization: browsers corner to: weed@venus co uk Subject: J. S

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:

База данных защищена авторским правом © 2000-2014
При копировании материала обязательно указание активной ссылки открытой для индексации.
обратиться к администрации

Разработка сайта — Веб студия Адаманов