Александра Георгиевна Гилянова, Мириам Ильинична Оссовская, Зинаида Яковлевна Тураева icon

Александра Георгиевна Гилянова, Мириам Ильинична Оссовская, Зинаида Яковлевна Тураева



НазваниеАлександра Георгиевна Гилянова, Мириам Ильинична Оссовская, Зинаида Яковлевна Тураева
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Александра Георгиевна Гилянова,

Мириам Ильинична Оссовская,

Зинаида Яковлевна Тураева

УЧЕБНИК АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

(ДЛЯ III КУРСА ИНСТИТУТОВ И ФАКУЛЬТЕТОВ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ)

Допущено

Министерством высшего и среднего

специального образования СССР в качестве учебника

для студентов институтов и факультетов

иностранных языков


Редактор В. И. Киселева. Издательский редактор Р. И. Заславская.

Художественный редактор Н. Л. Кузнецова, Обложка художника Э. А. Маркова.

Технический редактор Н. А. Битюкова. Корректор В. А. Золотова.

Сдано в набор 3О/VIII 1970г. Подп. к печати 24/XI 1970г. Формат 60x90 1/10

Объем 14 печ. л. Уч.-изд. л. 15,82. Изд. № A—112. Тираж 36000 экэ. Заказ № 1322.

Цена 54 коп.

Тематический план издательства «Высшая школа» (вузы и техникумы) на 1973 год. Позиция № 127.

Москва, К-51, Неглинная ул., д. 29/14, Издательство «Высшая школа»







^

ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО «ВЫСШАЯ ШКОЛА» Москва1971

CONTENTS



Предисловие 4

Lesson 1. W. M. Thackeray. Vanity Fair (an extract) 9

Lesson 2. Ch. Dickens. Great Expectations (an extract) 20

Lesson 3. Th. Hardy. A Few Crusted Characters (an extract) 35

Revision Exercises 44

Lesson 4. M. Twain. An Encounter with an Interviewer 48

Lesson 5. R. Kipling. The Light that Failed (an extract) 61

Lesson 6. G. B. Shaw. Heartbreak House (an extract) 71

Revision Exercises 86

Lesson 7. J. Galsworthy. To Let (an extract) 92

Lesson 8. W. S. Maugham. The Moon and Sixpence (an extract) 103

Lesson 9. E. Hemingway. A Farewell to Arms (an extract) 114

Revision Exercises 124

Lesson 10. I. Shaw. The Young Lions (an extract) 128

Lesson 11. A. Miller. Death of a Salesman (an extract) 140

Lesson 12. H. Lee. To Kill a Mockingbird (an extract) 160

Revision Exercises 170

Lesson 13. A. Kettle.
An Introduction to the English Novel (an extract) 174

Lesson 14. A. J. Cronin. The Northern Light (an extract) 185

Lesson 15. C. P. Snow. The Masters (an extract) 198

Revision Exercises 210

Key 214

Pronouncing Reference-List 222
^

Index of Stylistic Terms 223


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящий учебник предназначается для студентов III курса институтов и факультетов иностранных языков.

Задачей учебника является дальнейшее совершенствование навыков, уже приобретенных студентами на I и II курсе, и выработка умений вдумчиво читать и понимать художественный текст в единстве его содержания и формы.

Учебник содержит 15 уроков. После каждых трех уроков следуют обзорные упражнения. В учебнике имеется список трудных для произношения собственных имен и географических названий, ключ к упражнениям на предлоги и артикли (построенным на оригиналь­ном материале) и индекс стилистических терминов.

Структура урока: 1) введение к тексту, включенному в урок; 2) текст; 3) комментарий; 4) вопросы для обсуждения текста; 5) вокабуляр, подлежащий заучиванию; 6) упражнения.

Обзорные упражнения включают: 1) повторительные упражнения, 2) текст для самостоятельного анализа.

В введении к тексту определяется место писателя в литературе его страны, дается краткая характеристика выбранного произведе­ния и поясняется ситуация, представленная в отрывке.

Тексты в учебнике расположены в хронологическом порядке. При выборе авторов и подборе произведений составители учебника руководствовались следующими соображениями: познакомить сту­дентов с наиболее значительными писателями различных направ­лений английской и американской литературы XIX и XX столетий; познакомить студентов с литературными произведениями различных жанров (в учебнике представлены отрывки из романов, пьес, пуб­лицистической прозы, короткие рассказы).

В учебнике преобладают произведения авторов XX века, так [4] как система работы на III курсе предусматривает, прежде всего, практическое овладение современным английским языком. Авторы считали необходимым включить в учебник некоторые образцы клас­сической литературы (отрывки из произведений Теккерея, Диккенса и Харди), поскольку овладение современным языком невозможно в полном отрыве от языка классической литературы.

Необходимость дать логически законченный отрывок определила различную длину текстов, а соответственно, и размеры уроков, хотя, насколько возможно, длинные тексты подверглись сокращению. Учебник построен на оригинальных текстах, расположенных в хронологическом порядке, поэтому не везде удалось соблюсти прин­цип постепенного нарастания языковых трудностей.

В комментариях объясняются реалии, стилистические и лексико-грамматические особенности текста. Объяснения предусматривают более глубокое понимание содержания и формы текста и подготовку студентов к самостоятельному чтению и анализу художественного произведения. Кроме того, они помогают студентам выполнить некоторые наиболее сложные упражнения.

Вопросы, следующие за текстом, дают основу для всестороннего и систематизированного обсуждения изучаемого отрывка. Их цель— помочь глубокому проникновению в содержание текста через на­блюдение над его художественными и языковыми особенностями. Вопросы ставятся таким образом, чтобы дать определенное направ­ление мысли студента. В вопросах частично содержится материал для предполагаемого ответа. При обсуждении текста студент должен также опираться на вводную статью и комментарий.

Вокабуляр, отобранный из текстов для активизации, включает общеупотребительную лексику и фразеологию, необходимую для дальнейшего развития речевых навыков студентов.

Упражнения к текстам направлены на развитие устных навыков студентов, на тренировку вокабуляра, а также различных грамма­тических структур, встречающихся в текстах.

Учебник не предполагает систематической работы над курсом грамматики. Однако грамматические упражнения, выбор которых определяется текстом, дают возможность повторить наиболее труд­ные для усвоения разделы грамматики.

Количество и характер упражнений в каждом отдельном уроке определяется спецификой текста. Тем не менее, составители стремились придерживаться определенной последовательности упражнений во всех уроках, а именно: [5]

1. Упражнения, направленные на закрепление лексики и фразеологии текста.

2.Упражнения, способствующие активизации грамматических структур, встречающихся в тексте (наибольшее внимание уделяется структурным особенностям разговорной речи).

3. Упражнения на словообразование.

4. Упражнения на употребление предлогов. Они включают: упражнения, основанные на тексте урока, и упражнения, построен­ные на связном оригинальном материале (заимствованном преиму­щественно из тех же произведений, что и тексты уроков).

5. Упражнения на употребление артиклей, построенные на связ­ном, оригинальном тексте.

6. Обобщающие упражнения по содержанию текста данного урока.

Обзорные уроки предназначены для самостоятельной работы сту­дентов. Каждый обзорный урок предусматривает повторение фразео­логических единиц и грамматических структур предшествующих трех уроков, а также включает задание по анализу и комментиро­ванию небольшого отрывка.
^

Методические рекомендации


Авторы считают, что на работу с учебником следует отводить не менее 6 часов в неделю. Каждый урок учебника потребует для тща­тельной проработки в среднем 2—3 недели, в зависимости от слож­ности и длины текста. Контрольное занятие по обзорному уроку планируется на 2—4 часа.

Работа над уроком учебника начинается с беседы об авторе и произведении, из которого заимствован отрывок. Эта беседа может строиться на материале вводной статьи или может быть расширена преподавателем.

До аудиторной проработки урока студенты должны прочесть текст дома. Длинные тексты следует делить на два задания. В аудито­рии текст читается и переводится выборочно (по усмотрению препо­давателя). Первые занятия по уроку должны отводиться на чтение, перевод, разбор и комментирование текста.

Следующим этапом является обсуждение текстов по предлагае­мой авторами системе вопросов. Этому разделу работы придается чрезвычайно большое значение, так как работа с вопросами к тексту

способствует выработке у студентов углубленного понимания со­держания и формы художественного произведения, а также приви­тию навыков самостоятельного анализа художественного произве­дения.

При обсуждении текста к разделу Discussion of the Text рекомендуется обращаться дважды: в первый раз — для беседы по тексту под руководством преподавателя, вторично — как к плану для связного синтезированного высказывания студентов по тексту.

Как уже указывалось, упражнения в учебнике носят разнонаправленный характер.

Упражнения с заданием Explain and expand on the following предназначены для контроля понимания студентами текста. Они тесно связаны с разделом Discussion of the Text. Эти упражнения следует выполнять на начальном этапе работы над текстом. Они предполагают подробное толкование контекста, в котором встречает­ся данное предложение или группа предложений (от студентов тре­буются объяснения причинно-следственного характера, основанные на материале отрывка).

Упражнения на парафраз также рекомендуется выполнять сразу же после чтения текста. Выполнение этих упражнений преследует цель научить студентов передавать одну и ту же мысль различными языковыми средствами, используя ранее пройденные грамматиче­ские структуры и вокабуляр. Парафраз допускает изменения лекси­ческие и грамматические и дает большие возможности для работы над лексической синонимией. Курсивом выделены части предложений, которые служат основой для парафраза.

Систематическое выполнение упражнений на словообразование способствует активизации большого количества лексики, известной студентам пассивно, а также предотвращению типичных ошибок на смешение частей речи. Эти упражнения, как и все остальные, выпол­няются в ходе работы над уроком в последовательности, определяе­мой преподавателем.

Упражнения на перевод с русского языка на английский пред­ставляют собой итоговые упражнения; в них входят основные лек­сические и грамматические явления, тренировавшиеся ранее. Все упражнения этого типа включают соответственно два раздела: раз­дел (А) — лексические явления, раздел (В) — грамматические явления.

Упражнения, входящие в обзорные уроки, рассчитаны на само-[7]стоятельную проработку. В аудитории осуществляется частичный контроль их выполнения.

Отрывки из различных произведений, включенные в обзорные уроки, предназначены для проверки умения студентов самостоятель­но анализировать текст. Проверка может носить как устный, так и письменный характер. Материал обзорных уроков рекомендуется использовать и для контрольных работ. [8]

Lesson 1
^

VANITY FAIR


By William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863)

W.M. Thackeray, one of the greatest English prose writers, provided the best portrait of the ruling classes of his country in the first half of the 19th century.

“Vanity Fair” (1846 – 1848) is his masterpiece. It is a broad panorama of contemporary life written with power and brilliance. The novel is heavy with satire. Thackeray attacks the most common vices of the upper classes: money-worship, reverence for ranks and titles, hypocrisy, cruelty and corruption. The plot develops around the fate of two women, Rebecca Sharp and Amelia Sedley. The central figure in the novel is Becky Sharp, the daughter of poor artists. She is determined to make her way into high society at any cost.

In the selection, given below we see the cruel, selfish, unscrupulous, eternally scheming and plotting, devoid even of material feelings.

In the second part of the extract the reader finds references to the lower classes. And the lower classes in Thackeray’s novels are the servants. In their own way they criticize, they are always there observing and noticing things, pronouncing judgement on their masters. The vast army of the working people finds no place in Thackeray’s novels.
^

Chapter XLIV


A Roundabout. Chapter between London and Hampshire

[…] He* was a fine open-faced 1 boy, with blue eyes and waving flaxen hair, sturdy in limb, but generous and soft in heart: fondly attaching himself to all who were good to him – to the pony – to Lord Southdown,** who gave him the horse (he used to blush and glow all over when he saw that kind young nobleman) - to the gloom who had charge of the pony – to Molly, the cook who crammed him with ghost stories at night, and with good things from the dinner 2 – to Briggs,*** whom he plagued and laughed at – and to his father especially, 3 whose attachment toward the lad was curious too to witness. Here, as he grew to be about eight years old, his attachments may be said to have ended. 4 The beautiful mother-vision had faded away after awhile. During [9] near years she had scarcely spoken to the child. She disliked him. He had the measles and the hoping-cough. He bored her. One day when he was standing at the landing-place, having crept down from the upper regions, attracted by the sound of his mother’s voice, who was singing to Lord Steyne,**** the drawing-room the door opening suddenly, discovered the little spy, who but a moment before had rapt in delight, and listening to the music.

His mother came and struck him violently a couple of boxes on the ear. He heard a laugh from the Marquis in the inner room (who was amused by this free and artless exhibition of Becky’s temper), and fled down below to his friends of the kitchen, bursting in an agony of grief.

“It is not because it hurts me” little Rawdon gasped out – “only – only” sobs and tears would up the sentence in a storm. It was the little boy’s heart bleeding. 5 “What ”mayn’t hear her singing? Why don’t she ever sing to me 6 – as she does to that bald-headed man with large teeth?” He gasped out at various intervals these exclamations of rage and grief. The cook looked at the housemaid; the housemaid looked knowingly at the footman – the awful kitchen inquisition 7 that sits in judgment in every house, and knows everything – sat on Rebecca at the moment.

After this incident, the mother’s dislike increased to hatred: the consciousness that the child was in the house was a reproach and a pain to her. His sight annoyed her. Fear, doubt, and resistance sprang up, too, in the boy’s own bosom. They were separated from that day of the boxes on the ear.

Lord Steyne also heartily disliked the boy. When they met by mischance, he made sarcastic bows or remarks to the child, or glared at him with savage-looking eyes. Rawdon used to stare him in the face, and double his fists in return. He knew his enemy and this gentleman, of all who came in house, was the one who angered him most. One day the footman found him squaring his fists at Lord Steyne’s hat in the hall. The footman told the circumstance as a good joke to Lord Steyne’s coachman; that officer imparted it to Lord Steyne’s gentleman, and to the servants’ hall in general. And very soon afterward, when Mrs. Rawdon Crawley made her appearance at Gaunt House,* the porter who unbarred the gates, the servants of all uniforms in the hall, the functionaries in white waistcoats, who bawled out from landing to landing the names of Colonel and Mrs. Rawdon Crawley, knew about her, or fancied they did. The man, who brought her refreshment and stood behind her chair, had talked her character over with the large gentleman in motley-colored clothes at his side. Bon Dieu!** It is awful, that servants inquisition. 8 You see a woman in a great partly in a splendid saloon, surrounded by awful admirers, distributing sparkling glances, dressed to perfection, curled, rouged, smi-[10]ling and happy: Discovery walks respectfully up tot her, in the shape of a huge powdered man with large calves and a tray of ices – with calumny (which is fatal as truth) – behind him, 9 in the shape of hulking fellow carrying the water-biscuits. Madam, your secret will be talked over 10 by those men at the public house tonight. Jeameswill tell Chawles his notions about you over their pipes and pewter beer-pots. Some people ought to have mutes for servants in Vanity Fair 11 – mutes who could not write. If you are guilty, tremble. That fellow behind your chair may be a janissary with a bowstring in his plush breeches pocket. If your are not guilty, have a care of appearances; 10 which are as ruinous as guilt.

“Was Rebecca guilty or not?”, the Vehmgericht*** of the servants‘ hall had pronounced against her.

And, I shame to say; she would not have got credit had they not believed her to be guilty. It was the sight of the Marquis of Steyne’s carriage-lamps at her door, contemplated by Raggles, burning in the blackness of midnight “that kep him up”**** as he afterward said; that even more than Rebecca’s arts and coaxings.

And so – guiltless very likely – she was writing and pushing onward toward that they call @a position in society”, and the servants were pointing at her as lost and ruined. So you see Molly, the housemaid, of a morning watching a spider in the doorpost lay his thread and laboriously crawl up it, until, tried of the spot, she raises her broom and sweeps away the thread and the artificer.

COMMENTARY


  1. He was a fine open-faced boy…

This sentence is rich in epithets. The epithet is a word or a group of words, giving an expressive characterization of the object described. Grammatically epithets commonly appear as attributes. They disclose the emotionally colored individual attitude of the writer towards the person or thing qualified. Thus Thackeray speaks of little Rawdon as a “fine open-faced boy” , calls him “generous and soft in the heart”.

  1. … Molly, the cook, who crammed him with ghost stories at night, and with good things from the dinner”

“Ghost stories” and “good things from the dinner” are treated here by the author as word combinations of the same rank. The parallel use of these word combinations so different in meaning helps the author to reach a humorous effect.

  1. He was a fine open-faced boy… fondly attaching himself to all who were good to him – to the pony – to Lord Southdown… - to Molly, the cook… - to Briggs… and his father especially…[11]

Note the reverse way, in which little Rawdon’s attachments are listened. First comes the pony, then Lord Southdown, who gave him this pony, then Molly, the cook, the Briggs, who actually brought him up, and finally his father. This reverse innumeration helps in creating a humorous effect.

  1. Here, as he grew to be about eight years old, his attachments may be said to have ended…

Make a note of the use of the Subjective Infinitive Construction. The Perfect Infinitive shows priority of the action expressed by it.

  1. It was a little boy’s heart that was bleeding

A common deceive to achieve emphasis is to place “it is” or “it was” before the member of the sentence that is to be accentuated. It is usually followed by a clause introduced by “that” or “who”.

  1. What mayn’t hear her singing? Why don’t she ever sing to me…?

The violation of grammar rules that we see here may occur in children’s speech.

  1. The cook looked at the housemaid; the housemaid looked knowingly at the footman – the awful kitchen inquisition…

The stylistic device used in this sentence is known as parallelism. It consists in the similarity of the syntactical structure of successive phrases, clauses or sentences. Parallel constructions are often accompanied by the repetition of one or more words. In the sentence analyzed these words are “cook” and “housemaid”. The latter word completes the first clause and is repeated at the opening of the second clause. The sameness of the structure and vocabulary accentuates the fact that everyone in the servants’ quarters was drawn into gossip.

Scandal lived in the kitchens as well as in the parlours. According to Thackeray, the servants gossiped about their masters, criticized them and passed their sentence on them. The satirical effect is heightened by juxtaposing the words “kitchen” and “inquisition” so different in sphere of usage.

  1. Bon Dieu! It is awful, that servants inquisition!

Thackeray here digresses from the narration expressing his views on contemporary society. Such digressions from the thread of narration could be traced throughout the novel and are very characteristic of Thackeray’s manner of writing. Here the author comments on the events described, reflects on the vices of the bourgeois world, expresses his philosophical views on life.

  1. Discovery walks respectfully up to her… with Calumny…

The abstract nouns “discovery” and “calumny” are used instead [12] of the names of the persons who were living embodiments of these vices, who were engaged in slander (calumny), in discovering the particulars of other people’s life. This transfer of the name of one object to another with which it is in some way connected is known as metonymy. Here it comes very close to allegory and serves to create a physically pal[able image of slander and gossip.

  1. Madam, your secret will be talked over… If you are guilty, have a care of appearances…

The use of the direct address as well as the use of the second person pronoun involves the reader into events of the book and lends a greater generalizing force to the passage.

“Vanity Fair” is the name Thackeray gave to English aristocratic and bourgeois society. The title of the book is highly symbolic and shows Thackeray’s attitude towards the contemporary society. He brands it as vain, mean, vicious and corrupt. The title can be traced back to the novel “The Pilgrim’s Progress” by John Bunyan (1628 - 1688). The pilgrims come to the city of Vanity and there at Vanity Fair “houses, lands, trades, places, honours… and delights of all sorts as whores, bawds, wives, husbands, children… could be sold and bought”.
^

DISCUSSION OF THE TEXT


  1. Characterize the text under study. Say whether it presents a piece of narration, a description, character-drawing, etc. If it contains different elements, name all of them.

  2. Ito what parts does it fall? Characterize each of them.

  3. What is the general slant of the text? Is it satirical, humorous, pathetic, unemotional? How you can prove it?

  4. What kind of boy was little Rawdon?

  5. What is the author’s method of describing him? Does Thackeray use direct characterization amply or sparingly? Point out the instances of direct characterization. How does Thackeray describe the boy otherwise (through his actions, feelings, attitude towards other people)?

  6. Could you trace where the author’s sympathy lies? Comment on the words chosen by the novelist to describe little Rawdon.

  7. What role did the ear-boxing incident play in the formation of Rawdon’s character and in his relations with the mother? What sides of his character are revealed through his intense dislike of Lord Steyne?

  8. How is Rebecca presented in the extract under discussion? What artistic means does the author employ to make the reader understand what kind of woman she was? What were her feelings towards her son?

  9. Comment on the words “free and artless” used by the author in description of Becky’s temper? Do you feel a ring of irony here? [13]

  10. Do you find any instances of the author's digression in this extract? What role does it play? How is the effect it produces on the reader heightened?

  11. Comment on the syntax of this part. Find sentences with par­allel constructions and speak of their use.

  12. In what way does Thackeray attain a high degree of general­ization? How does the use of pronouns contribute to it?

  13. What sentences in particular show how scandal and gossip could undo a man in Vanity Fair? Does Thackeray want to impress upon the reader that all layers of society are infected by scandal? If so, prove it by references to the text.

  14. What is the symbolic significance of the last lines? Aren't there any meeting points in the fate of a man "pushing-onward" and a spider laboriously laying its thread? Don't they come to the same end? What is the role of this image of the spider?

  15. Comment on the use of the expressive means of the language— particularly such as epithet and metonymy. Say how they tie in with the main line of thought.

  16. Study the sentence "Bon Dieu! it is awful, that servants' in­quisition!" Don't you think it sounds more like the words of a fretting lady than the utterance of the novelist himself? If so, what is the pur­pose of this device? Why does Thackeray catch the intonation of a lady of society?

  17. How does Thackeray cloak his ridicule?

  18. Give a summary of your comments on the text.
^
WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS TO BE MEMORIZED

Open-faced (a)

Artless (a)

Glow (v)

Gasp out (v)

Cram (v)

Wind up (v)

Fade away (v)

Bleed (v)

Measles (n)

Resistance (n)

hooping-cough (n)

Guilty (a)

Bore (v)

Writhe (v)

Creep (v)

Crawl (v)

Violently (adv.)

Sweep away (v)

To have charge of something or somebody

To strike somebody a box on the ear

To burst into (an agony of grief)

To stare someone in the face

To square (double) one's fists

To make one's appearance

To have a care of appearances

To get credit

To push onward

A position in society

To keep somebody up

To lay the thread [14]

EXERCISES


I. Explain and expand on the following:

1. The beautiful mother-vision had faded away after awhile.

2. The cook looked at the housemaid; the housemaid looked know­ingly at the footman — the awful kitchen inquisition that sits in judgement in every house, and knows everything — sat on Rebecca at the moment.

3. You see a woman in a great party in a splendid saloon, surround­ed by faithful admirers, distributing sparkling glances, dressed to perfection, curled, rouged, smiling and happy.

4. Discovery walks respectfully up to her, in the shape of a huge powdered man with large calves and a tray of ices — with Calumny (which is as fatal as truth) — behind him, in the shape of the hulking fellow carrying the Wafer-biscuits.

5. Some people ought to have mutes for servants in Vanity Fair — mutes who could not write.

6. If you are guilty, tremble ... If you are not guilty, have a care of appearances; which are as ruinous as guilt.

II. Paraphrase the following sentences from the text:

1. He was a fine open-faced boy, with blue eyes and waving flaxen hair, sturdy in limb, but generous and soft in heart: fondly attaching . himself to all who were good to him.

2. Molly ... crammed him with ghost stories at night, and with good things from the dinner.

3. He plagued and laughed at Briggs.

4. His mother ... struck him violently a couple of boxes on the ear.

5. He gasped out at various intervals these exclamations of rage and grief.

III. Find in the text the sentences of which the following ones are periphrases:

1. Lord Steyne could not stand the sight of the boy

2. Of all the people who visited their house, this one roused the boy's most bitter hatred.

3. After that day of the boxes on the ear the mother's feelings for the boy grew more and more bitter.

4. Rawdon would meet his gaze without flinching.

5. The image of the beautiful mother had gradually disappeared.

IV. Paraphrase the following sentences using the vocabulary and phraseology of the text:

1. Molly used to tell him ghost stories at night.

2. His natural innocent ways attracted people to him.

3. Rawdon was very well built.

4. He was enraptured by Rebecca's singing.

5. He would continuously poke fun at Briggs. [15]

6. Rebecca did not spare efforts to climb up the social ladder.

7. The little boy was attached to the groom who looked after his pony.

V. Give definitions of the following words using an English-English dictionary:

Exhibition

Judgment

Notion

Motley-colored

Sparkling

Glow

Plague

Wind up

Bawl

Writhe

VI. Give corresponding colloquial variants for the following:

1. That officer imparted it to Lord Steyne's gentleman. 2. It was the sight of the Marquis of Steyne's carriage-lamps at her door, contem­plated by Haggles... "that kept him up".

VII. (a) Give Russian equivalents for the following:

Sturdy in limb; soft in heart; to glow all over; to have charge of somebody or something; to strike (give) somebody a box on the ear; to square one's fists; to have a care of appearances; to get credit; to keep someone up; a position in society; to lay the thread

(b) Translate the sentences containing the above expressions into Russian.

VIII. Give English equivalents for the following:

пощечина; дать пощечину; привязываться к кому-либо; пичкать; сжимать кулаки; появиться; положение в обществе; плести паутину; заботиться о соблюдении приличий

IX. Make up sentences using the following expressions:

a box on the ear; to double one's fists; to get credit for something; to have charge of something; to stare someone in the face; to lay the thread; to keep someone up; to push onward

X. Make up several short dialogues using the following words and word combinations:

To glow all over; to have a care of appearances; to crawl; to tremble; to be rapt in delight; to bore resistance

XI. Make the following sentences emphatic by placing "it is" or "it was" at the beginning. Follow the model from the text.

Model: It was the boy's heart that was bleeding.

1. The boy resented the offence, not the pain. 2. Lord Steyne was amused by Becky's behaviour. 3. He disliked the boy heartily. 4. Re­becca was craving after a position in society.

XII. Find instances in the text where a repeated action in the past is expressed. Pattern your own sentences after these. [16]

XIII. Transform the following complex sentences into simple ones by using the Subjective Infinitive Construction.

Model: It was thought that he had been generous and soft in heart. - He was thought to have been generous and soft in heart.

1. It seemed that the boy was rapt in delight. 2. It was said that his hobby had often kept him up. 3. It was not likely that she would burst into tears in the presence of strangers. 4. It was known that she had charge of the baby. 5. It was said that they had got credit for faultless service.

XIV. Make up your own sentences with the Subjective Infinitive Construction.

XV. Make up your own sentences after the model.

Model: She would not have got credit had they not believed her to be guilty.

XVI. Pick out sentences with compound adjectives from the text under study.

XVII. Recast the following sentences so as to use compound adjec­tives instead of the italicized words.

Model: He was a boy with blue eyes and fair hair. He was a blue-eyed and fair-haired boy.

1. Her brother was short, strong and had broad shoulders. 2. The girl was short for her age and had bowlegs. 3. She had a beautiful face of oval shape. 4. Dobbin had a very kind heart. 5. He was known as a man of a broad mind.

XVIII. Pick out the sentence from the text in which the word "anger" is used. State what part of speech it is. Make your own sentences with the same word used as another part of speech.

XIX. Recast the following sentences substituting the parts of speech indicated in brackets for the italicized words. Make necessary changes.

Mode 1: She disliked him. (noun).

She felt a strong dislike for him.

1. He heard a laugh from the marquis. (Verb). 2. When he was eight years old his attachments may be said to have ended, (noun). 3. His sobs stifled the words, (verb) 4. The cook looked at the house­maid, (noun). 5. The mother's dislike increased to hatred, (verb). 6. The consciousness that the child was in the house was a pain to her. (Verb). 7. Lord Steyne was amused by the exhibition of Becky's temper, (noun). 8. He bored her. (Noun) 9. He attached himself to all who were good to him. (Noun). 10. His very sight annoyed her. (Noun). 11. He made sarcastic bows to the child. (Verb). [17]

XX. Translate the following sentences into English:

  1. 1. Мальчик был крепкого сложения. 2. Ребекка очень оскорбила ребенка, надавав ему пощечин. 3.Мальчик сжал кулаки и молча уставился на своего врага. 4. Домашние дела часто заставляли ее засиживаться допоздна. 5.Заботы о ребенке лежали на мисс Бриггс. 6. Мальчик перенес корь и коклюш. 7. Родон подкрался к двери, где мать пела лорду Стейну. 8. Он съежился не от боли, а от стыда.

  2. 1. Он всегда появлялся неожиданно. 2. Она, как правило, подходила, когда ее меньше всего ждали. 3. Говорят, она очень любит музыку. 4. Говорят, она очень любила музыку. 5. Казалось, ребенок сразу же привязался к нему.

XXI. Fill in the blanks prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

    1. 1. The child’s grief was so tense, that he burst __ passionate tears. 2. He easily attached himself __ people. 3. The woman that had charge the baby was anything, but softhearted. 4. The way the boy stared him__ the face was most disconcerting. 5. This proposition will be talked __ tonight. 6. They discussed the news__ their coffee. 7. She slept the thread laid__ the spider.

    2. 2. A day or two __ Christmas, Becky, her husband and her son, made ready and went to pass the holydays __ the seat __ their ancestors __ Queen’s Crawley. Becky would have liked to have a little brat __ and would have done so but for Lady Jane’s urgent invitations __ the youngster: and the symptoms __ revolt and discontent which Rawdon manifested __ her neglect her son. “He’s the finest boy __ England,” the father said __ a tone __ reproach __ her, “and you don’t seem to care __ him, Becky, as much as you do __ your spaniel. He shan’t bother you much __ the home he will be away __ you __ the nursery, and he shall go outside __ the coach __ me”.

(From “Vanity Fair” by W. M. Thackeray).

XXII. Fill in the blanks with the definite or indefinite article where required:

While — present century was in its teens, and on one sunshiny morning in June, there drove up to — great iron gate of Miss Pinker-ton's academy for — young ladies, on — Chiswick Mall, — large family coach with two fat horses in — blazing harness, driven by — fat coach­man in — three-cornered hat and wig, at — rate of four miles — hour. — Black servant, who reposed on — box beside — fat coachman, uncurled his bandy legs as soon as — equipage drew up opposite Miss Pinker-ton's shining brass plate, and as he pulled — bell at least — score of — young heads were seen peering out of — narrow windows of — state­ly old brick house. Nay, — acute observer might have recognized — little red nose of — good-natured Miss Jemima Pinkerton herself [18] rising over some geranium-pots in — window of that lady's own drawing-room.

(From "Vanity Fair" by W. M. Thackeray)

XXIII. Retell the ear-boxing incident as if you were (a) little Rawdon; (b) one of Rebecca's servants; (c) Lord Steyne.

XXIV. Write a brief summary of the extract.

XXV. Write an essay on mother and child relations as described by Thackeray. [19]
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