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R. M. Dokuchayeva



НазваниеR. M. Dokuchayeva
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R.M. Dokuchayeva


ON SENSE MODELS OF THE UTTERANCES IN A POLITICAL MONITORING


Being one of the leading communication fields nowadays, political communication attracts attention not only of politicians themselves and the country citizens, but also of researches. The latter distinguish between three main ways of political communication: a) communication through mass media, b) communication through organizations, c) communication through informal contacts. Independent mass media provide people with reliable and relevant information, take part in moulding and expressing public opinion, promote effectiveness of the dialogue between different social groups. Mass media are considered to perform a role of an arbitrator in political battles, including those with famous politicians (G.O. Britsky, 2001:103).


According to Klymova S.G. and Yakusheva T.V., people, as a rule, form their opinion not about a politician himself, but about his image suggested by mass media (Klymova S.G. and Yakusheva T.V, 2000:66). Presenting a politician’s image, journalists and researches use information received from polls, interviews, monitoring of public opinion, testing, round-table discussions, etc. The supporting effect of one politician or another is achieved mainly by unconscious perception factors. “The manifestations of inner psychological structure of the leader recorded in the results of testing are mini-images of the unconscious tendencies functioning in the interior of his mentality and determining many of the aspects of his social and political actions” (N.P. Shelekhasova, 2000:130). So, when investigating unconscious factors of Russian people’s perception of their president, researchers used the method of associating his image with animals, flowers, and smells (E.B. Shestopal, T.N. Pisheva, E.N. Gikavyi, V.A. Zorin, 2004: 20).


Researches pay special attention to the interior tendencies of public perception of the leading politicians, for example, Russian people’s concept of an “ideal” president, especially in the conditions of the existing electorate problems; or their assessment of Putin’s work as the president of Russia and his impact on the situation in the country.


The image of the Russian president is presented by Russian mass media, as well as by local ones. For example, the weekly newspaper ^ Zyryanskaya Zhizn, issued in the Republic of Komi (RK), suggests people’s speaking out about President Putin and about the political act initiated by him, “In the telegram sent on October 7 to the President of Russia, the Head of the RK, Vladimir Torlopov, congratulated Vladimir Putin on his 52nd birthday and wished him good health and confidence in implementing his initiatives.
WHAT WOULD YOU WISH PRESIDENT PUTIN?” (October 11, 2004); “The President of Russia propounded to abrogate the principle of electing heads of the regions of Russia by public voting. Putin believes that they should be elected by legislative region councils formed after his recommendation. СAN PUTIN CHOOSE BETTER THAN WE?” (September 20, 2004). The weekly newspaper Molodjezh Severa, issued in RK, also suggests assessing the effectiveness of one of Putin’s initiatives, “At one of the regular sessions of State Council in Kaliningrad, President Putin spoke in favour of introducing state monopoly in alcohol production, as 40 000 people die annually from alcohol assumption. CAN THIS MEAUSURE STOP THE PRODUCTION OF “BLACK” VODKA?” (July 7, 2005).


Just like in any other genres of the field of political communication, the imperative function, the function of affecting the addressee, is realized in political monitoring, though preferably by indirect means. The utterance of the communicator in this genre is aimed not only at transferring its meaning to the addressee, but also at motivating his reaction to the current communicative situation.


In this paper, we are interested in sense models of the utterances in one political monitoring, published in the newspaper ^ Molodjezh Severa.

The phenomenon of sense is associated with the word as a language unit (Y.D. Apresyan, E.V. Paducheva, G.I. Kustova, E.V. Rakhilina, N.Y. Shvedova, E.V. Uryson, E.Y. Yatzenko, G.A. Zolotova, N.S. Valgina, A.L. Novikov, M.Y. Fedosyuk, I.N. Gorelov, K.F. Sedov) [6], and with the sentence (N.D. Arutyunova, E.N. Solovyeva, V.A. Beloshapkova, N.L. Shubina) [7].


Words-senses and sentences-senses, which form a space of meaning, are presented in the language by the utterance. The message field of the utterance is formed as the result of interaction of the given meaning components (I.A. Melchuk, 1974:438). The meaning components, at the same time, correlate with the subject and the object, their characteristics, status and function; activity and state, relations with space-time continuum. This way, verb lexemes of perception, movement, etc. can act as “creators” of a space of meaning (R.M. Dokuchayeva, 2004:99).


The phenomenon of sense is associated, first of all, and more than anything, with text. Text, according to N.S. Valgina, is “a sequence of verbal signs united by sense, the main qualities of which are coherence and integrity” (N. S. Valgina, 2004:12). Sense integration of verbal signs in the text is accomplished naturally in the process of communication. In the sphere of communication itself, as N.Y. Shvedova believes, “complicated sense integrities are created due to the interaction of senses”. M.Y. Lotman states that text behaves like a person, i.e. it acts as an involved communication participant thanks to its sense forming ability. Referring to the communicative function of the language, O.L. Kamenskaya marks that the term “sense” is appropriate only when applied to the recipient: sense is “semantics perceived by recipient” (O.L. Kamenskaya, 1990:40). Besides, “the speech act is intended for a certain type of addressee” (N.D. Arutyunova); meeting presuppositions of the addressee is one of the most important conditions for the effectiveness of a communicative act, it’s an evidence of the conformity of not only basic knowledge of the world and message aims of the communicator and the recipient, but also sense models of their utterances (R.M. Dokuchaeva, 2003:35).


In the given paper we are trying to determine the specific character of sense models in the utterances of the subject (communicator) and the object (addressee) in one of political investigations published in ^ Molodjezh Severa, issue 13, July 28, 2005, and find out their correlation.


We should mention that the function of the subject is performed by a collective communicator – the newspaper MS itself, the function of the addressee is performed by a deputy of the State Council of KR, a human rights representative in KR, presidents of social movements, political parties, etc. The utterances of the addresses in the monitoring are preceded by a preface – the utterance of the subject (communicator). The role of the subject of the utterance is to introduce into the communication some information, some senses, that are going to motivate the object to actions necessary for the subject (E.V. Denisyuk, 2004:178).


Let’s present a subject’s utterance and its sense structure.


“Last week at the meeting with remedial representatives, President Putin proclaimed that he wouldn’t permit foreign financing of political activity in Russia. However, the federal law already bans any donations to political parties coming from foreign citizens or states, although many remedial organizations receive grants from abroad. SO WHAT IS THE PRESIDENT AFTER?”


The senses introducing information into interpretation of the given communicative situation are:


  1. ‘President Putin believes that remedial activity is similar to the activity of political parties’. This sense is presented in the following key lexemes or lexemes combinations: ‘President Putin proclaimed’, ‘remedial representatives’, ‘political activity’. ‘Proclaim’ means to inform somebody about something (in the administrative оrgans), here – “to inform something to a social organization” (Small Academic Dictionary).

  2. “remedial activity is financed from abroad”. This sense is presented by a predicative block: ‘remedial organizations receive grants from abroad’. ‘Grants’ is a form of donation, and it comes from abroad, not from Russia.

  3. ‘financing the activity of remedial organizations contradicts the federal law’. The given sense is presented by predicative components arranged in structural parallelism: ‘President Putin will not permit foreign financing of political activity, ‘The federal law already bans any donations to political parties coming from foreign citizens or states’. The structure of predicative components has blocks of lexemes connected by associations: ‘President Putin’, ‘federal law’; those connected by contextual synonymic relations: ‘wouldn’t permit financing’, ‘bans donations’; and those connected by metonymical relations: ‘political activity’, ‘political parties’, ‘from abroad’, ‘from foreign states and citizens’.

  4. “President Putin’s initiative has a definite aim, unknown to the subject”. The given sense is presented as an implication.


The senses introducing information into the interpretation of the given message are contrasted to the communicative sense: the object is aware of the aim of the act initiated by President Putin, and the object can inform the subject about it. With the help of the communicative sense, in E.V. Denisyuk’s opinion, the subject defines and comments on the President’s and his own communicative characteristics, the characteristics of the interaction environment.


Utterance 1.

  • The authors of the President’s speech obviously mixed something up. You cannot mix political parties and social organizations. Remedial representatives work as volunteers and very rarely receive any grants from abroad. But, apparently, the president’s staff have vague ideas about remedial organizations, which is wrong, in my opinion. The state should pay more attention to remedial workers, then they won’t need any help from abroad.


The senses introducing information into the interpretation of the given communicative situation are:

  1. ‘remedial organization is a social organization’;

  2. ‘the activity of these organizations could be financed from abroad systematically, as they are not provided by the state’;

  3. ‘there’s no reason for necessity of realization of President Putin’s initiative’.


Utterance 2.

  • I am sure that Putin’s statement has nothing to do with remedial organizations. That’s why donations from nongovernmental funds and even states will not be cut off.

The senses introducing information into the interpretation of the given communicative situation are:

  1. ‘remedial organizations are social organizations’;

  2. ‘it is necessary to finance these organizations’;

  3. ‘President Putin’s initiative is unfounded’.


Utterance 3.

  • President Putin has already achieved everything he wanted in consolidating his political regime leading to totalitarian control and cutting down any social discussions. His last statements were the culmination, his oath not to change the chosen way. We should be ready for the increase of the gap between the authorities and society.


The senses introducing information into the interpretation of the given communicative situation are:

  1. ‘President Putin’s initiative is not constructive for developing democratic tendencies in Russia’;

  2. ‘President Putin’s initiative could be conducive to strengthening positive relations between the authorities and society’.


Utterance 4.

  • The fact is that in civilized countries there is a clear border between political and nonpolitical activity. But in the authoritarian regime created by Vladimir Putin, the field of politics is so broad that even the situation with a remedial worker from Vorkuta, Lyudmila Zhorovlya, can be considered to be a political matter. That means our state is not democratic, and any activity that is objectionable to authorities can be treated as belonging to the category of politics. As for Putin, this is his another incursion into the remedial movement.


The senses introducing information into the interpretation of the given communicative situation are:

  1. ‘Russia is an uncivilized country, that’s why there’s no borderline between political and nonpolitical activity, and remedial activity is categorized as political’;

  2. ‘the authorities are not satisfied with the remedial activity’;

  3. President Putin’s initiative is an evidence of his aversion of remedial activity’.


Utterance 5.

  • Social organizations should not be involved into commercial activity, because they have a different character than parties. More than that, I personally don’t know any examples of noncommercial political organizations being financed by international funds. Another matter is that nowadays anything can be treated as politics. Putin’s stand can turn into a fight with organizations objectionable and inconvenient for authorities and officials, but useful for people and society.



The senses introducing information into the interpretation of the given communicative situation are:

  1. ‘remedial organizations are noncommercial, social, that’s why they can’t finance themselves’;

  2. ‘President Putin considers remedial organizations to be political’;

  3. ‘remedial organizations are not financed from international funds’;

  4. ‘President Putin’s initiative is destructive as it doesn’t stimulate the activity of remedial organizations’.


Utterance 6.

  • He is actually seeking after a right aim, because “the one who pays orders music”. Remedial organizations should not be financed neither by foreign funds, nor by states. Otherwise they won’t be independent.

On the other hand, no organization can exist without funds- they have to pay their rent, telephone communications, and elementary needs like stationary. These needs should be provided for by the budget. If the organization is registered in the Department of Justice, it can produce its budget there which will be refunded from the state Exchequer. But it should be completely independent financing, so that no official could have any influence on the remedial organizations.


The senses introducing information into the interpretation of the given communicative situation are:

    1. ‘remedial organizations are social and independent, that’s why they shouldn’t be financed according to the federal law’;

    2. ‘remedial organization is noncommercial, that’s why it should be financed from the state exchequer under certain conditions which don’t contradict federal law’;

    3. “President Putin wants the status of remedial organization in the field of finance to correspond to the federal law’.


If we compare the sense structure of the utterances of people who took part in the given communicative situation, we can present the results in the following table:


Subject (communicator)

Addressee

1. ‘President Putin believes that remedial activity is similar to the activity of political parties’

  • ‘remedial organization is a social organization’

  • ‘remedial organizations are social organizations’

  • ‘remedial organizations are non political’

  • ‘remedial organizations are non political’

  • ‘remedial organizations are noncommercial, social, that’s why they can’t finance themselves’

  • ‘remedial organizations are social and independent, that’s why they shouldn’t be financed according to the federal law’




2. ‘remedial activity in Russia is financed from abroad’

  • ‘remedial activity is not financed from abroad except some grants’

  • ‘it’s necessary to finance remedial activity’

  • no reaction to the president’s statement

  • no reaction to the president’s statement

  • ‘ remedial activity is financed from abroad as it is noncommercial’

  • ‘ remedial activity should be financed from the state exchequer under certain conditions that don’t contradict the federal law’




3. ‘financing the activity of remedial organizations from abroad contradicts federal law’

  • ‘financing the activity of remedial organizations from abroad contradicts federal law’

  • ‘‘financing the activity of remedial organizations from abroad doesn’t contradict federal law’

  • zero sense component

  • ‘financing the activity of remedial organizations from abroad doesn’t contradict federal law’

  • zero sense component

  • ‘financing the activity of remedial organizations from abroad contradicts federal law’

4. ‘President Putin’s initiative has a definite aim unknown to the subject (communicator)’

  • ‘there’s no reason for necessity of realization of President Putin’s initiative’

  • ‘President Putin’s initiative is unfounded’

  • ‘President Putin’s initiative could be conducive to strengthening positive relations between the authorities and society’.

  • ‘President Putin’s initiative is not constructive for developing democratic tendencies in Russia’

  • ‘President Putin’s initiative testifies to the authorities’ unwillingness to finance remedial activity.’

  • ‘President Putin’s initiative is destructive as it doesn’t stimulate the activity of remedial organizations’.






The comparative analysis of the sense structure of the utterances has shown that sense models of the addressees are determined in a certain way by the model of the utterance of the subject (communicator).


Some of the sense models of the addressees’ utterances turned out to be completely determined. They were the ones that correlated with the following components of the utterance structure of the subject (communicator):


    1. ‘President Putin believes that remedial activity is similar to the activity of political parties’, where the components of the sense structure of the addressees’ utterances have an alternative sense charge;


b) ‘President Putin’s initiative has a definite aim unknown to the

subject(communicator)’, where the components of the sense

structure of the addressees’ utterances acquire a negative

evaluative character (‘President Putin’s initiative is unfounded’,

‘…is not constructive for developing democratic tendencies in

Russia’, ‘President Putin’s initiative is destructive as it doesn’t

stimulate the activity of remedial organizations’, etc.).


Partly determined sense models turned out to be those that correlated with the following components of the sense structure of the subject’s utterances:

    1. ‘remedial activity in Russia is financed from abroad’, where the sense structure of addressees’ utterances has various components (‘remedial activity is not financed from abroad except some grants’, ‘it’s necessary to finance remedial activity’, ‘ remedial activity is financed from abroad as it is noncommercial’, etc.)

    2. ‘financing the activity of remedial organizations from abroad contradicts federal law’, etc.


The degree of sense charge of the studied models in the utterances of the addressees is motivated not only by full or partial coincidence of sense targets of the participants of the communication, but also by their correlation with the political field: thus, the most sense charged models belonged to the human rights representative in KR, the deputy of the State Council of KR, the presidents of the social movement For Social Justice; the less charged sense models belonged to the president of the social organization Doryam Asnymos (Let’s Defend Oursleves), the president of the Komi genealogical society Ord Pu (Family Tree), etc.


Thus, the initial point for building sense models for studying the given genre is the communicative situation that is presupposed to have: participants of communication, political space where the communicative act is functioning, and existence of the subject and the object in the same political space. The difference of the initial point of sense models of addressees’ utterances is that they are determined by the sense structure of the utterance of the subject (communicator).


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