Russian Byzantine Catholics in the ussr in the 1970s and 1980s: Between the Hammer and the Anvil icon

Russian Byzantine Catholics in the ussr in the 1970s and 1980s: Between the Hammer and the Anvil



НазваниеRussian Byzantine Catholics in the ussr in the 1970s and 1980s: Between the Hammer and the Anvil
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1. /rbc7080.docRussian Byzantine Catholics in the ussr in the 1970s and 1980s: Between the Hammer and the Anvil

23 Mikhailo (Sergiy, Matey) Havryliv, OSBM – was born in Western Ukraine into a formerly Greek Catholic family in 1949, he was educated in Soviet schools, served in the army and entered the Leningrad Orthodox Seminary. While in Leningrad, he attended Mass at the Roman Catholic Church. He got in touch with metropolitan Nikodim Rotov, who introduced him to his close assistants. In 1971 or 1972, he began to go to confession regu­larly to Roman Catholic Church. In 1973, Lithuanian Capuchin Stanislovas Dobrovolskis received him into the Catholic Church. On 6 September 1975, he made a sacramental gen­eral Confession before Metropolitan Nikodim, who then ac­cepted his monastic vows with the name Sergiy and his profession of Faith to the Apostolic See and the Pope of Rome. On 4 November 1975, Metropolitan Nikodim ordained him to the priesthood. In 1977, he was reassigned to the Moscow Patriarchate's archdiocese of Lvov and Ternopol. Late in 1979, he met the underground Bishop Pavlo Vasylyk and joined the UGCC and the Basilian Order with the name Matey (Mathew). Soon he was dismissed from the Moscow Patriarchate. In 1980-1981, he visited the underground Catholic communities in Moscow and Leningrad, where he celebrated the Byzantine Liturgy. From 1980 to1987, he led active mission work in western Ukraine and worked officially as a loader, security guard, street cleaner and electrician. KGB agents threatened him. After Perestroika, he studied theology in Rome, where he is now one of the assistants in the General Office of the OSBM.

24 Vincentas Cardinal Sladkevicius, archbishop (1920-2000) - was born near Kaisiadoriu (Lithuania), he attended a Jesuit school, and then continued his studies at the seminary in Kaunas. He was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1944 and ministered as vicar and pastor in small parishes in Lithuania. In 1957, he was secretly consecrated Bishop of Kaisiadoriu. He ordained many Roman Catholic priests without the permission of the Soviet authorities. He also got in touch with the followers of Fr. Alexander Men and Metropolitan Nikodim Rotov. In 1982, he was officially accepted as Apostolic Administrator. In 1988, he was elevated to the rank of Cardinal and Primate of Lithuania. In 1995 he retired. He died in Kaunas.


25 Nora (Catherine of Siena) Rubashova, OPL (1909-1987) - was born into a prosperous Jewish family in Minsk. In 1926, she converted to Catholicism of the Byzantine rite and was baptized by Fr. Sergey Solovyev, Vice-Exarch of Russian Catholics.
The following year, she entered the community of Third Order Dominicans founded by Mother Anna (Catherine of Siena) Abrikosova, taking the “Sister Catherine of Siena.” She served in the Russian Catholic parish in Moscow (founded by Fr. Vladimir Abrikosov) as psalm-reader. In 1931, she was arrested and sentenced to imprisonment in the “Group Cause of Russian Catholics.” From 1931 to 1956, she was deprived of her freedom (12 Years of imprisonment in the Stalin camps and then exile). Only in 1956 was she fully rehabilitated by the government of Nikita Khruschev. She died in Moscow and was buried in the Staro-Khovanskoye cemetery near the tomb of Sr. Vera Gorodets. Fr. Evgeniy Heinrichs, OP, ministered at her funeral service.

26 Vera (Stephanie) Gorodets, OPL (1893-1974) - was born in Moscow into an ethnically mixed family, her father being a Jewish convert to Christianity. In 1926, she converted to Catholicism of the Byzantine rite and entered the community of Third Order Dominicans, taking the name “Sister Stephanie” In 1924, she was arrested and sentenced to exile in the “Group Cause of Russian Catholics.” Then she lived in Stavropol and was arrested in 1935. From 1935 to1956, she was deprived of her freedom (imprisonment in the Satalin camps and exile). In 1956 she was rehabilitated. She practiced both in the Byzantine and the Latin rite. She died in Moscow and was buried in the Staro-Khovanskoye cemetery.

27 Anna (Catherine of Siena) Abrikosova, OPL (1883-1936) - was born in Moscow, into a family of the merchants. In 1903 she graduated from Girton College of Cambridge University, returned to Russia, and married Vladimir Abrikosov. She was received into the Catholic Church in 1908, in Paris. In 1913 she jointed into the Third Order of St. Dominic. In 1917 she became a foundress of the community of Third Order sisters. In 1923 she was arrested together with the Sisters of her community and later sentenced to ten years of imprisonment. In 1932 she underwent surgery for breast cancer and was released because of the state of her health. In 1933 she was arrested again and sentenced to eight years in the camps. She died in the hospital of the Butyrka prison in Moscow.

28 Valentina (Antonina) Kuznetsova OPL (1897 – 1986?) - was born in Saint-Petersburg into a peasant family. In 1920, she converted to Catholicism of the Byzantine rite and entered the community of Third Order Dominicans founded by Mother Anna (Catherine of Siena) Abrikosova, taking the name “Sister Antonina” In 1924, she was arrested and sentenced to exile in the “Group Cause of Russian Catholics.” Then she lived in Voronezh and was arrested. From 1935 to1956, she was deprived of her freedom (imprisonment in the Satalin camps and exile). In 1956, she was rehabilitated. She tried to renew the activity of the Dominican community in the spirit of Mother Catherine Abrikosova and insisted on using the Byzantine rite.

29 Sofia (Philomena) Eismont, OPL (1900 – 1985?) - was born into a noble Polish family in Vilnius. In 1920, she converted to Catholicism of the Byzantine rite and entered the community of Third Order Dominicans founded by Mother Anna (Catherine of Siena) Abrikosova, taking the name “Sister Philomena” In 1924, she was arrested and sentenced to exile in the “Group Cause of Russian Catholics.” Then she lived in Obdorsk and Ryazan and was arrested in 1935. From 1935 to1956, she was deprived of her freedom (imprisonment in the Satalin camps and exile). In 1956 she was rehabilitated. She died in Vilnius.

30 Volodymyr Prokopiv, priest - was active among underground priests. During the 1970s and 1980s, he lived in Vilnius and celebrated the Byzantine Liturgy for the Dominican sisters. He had an original plan to legalize the activities of the Greek Catholic Church in the USSR: he proposed to go under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Bishops. He carried negotiations with Soviet authorities. The Hierarchy of the UGCC rejected this plan.

31 Jozef Swidnicky, monsignor - born into a polonized Ukrainian family in Murafa (near Vinitsa, Ukraine) in 1936 (1937), he tried to enter the Roman Catholic seminary in Riga many times, but the Soviet authorities refused him permission. He studied building construction and served in the Soviet Army. Bishop Sladkevicius secretly ordained him a Roman Catholic priest in 1971. He began his ministry in underground. In 1972, however, he was accepted as a Catholic priest by local Soviet authorities and ministered officially in Zhitomir (Ukraine). In 1975, he went to the mid-eastern Soviet republics and began missionary activities among deported Russian Germans. At the same time, he made many mission trips all over the USSR, established underground Christian ecumenical communities, and he got in touch with underground Ukrainian Greek Catholics in the USSR and with the followers of Fr. Alexander Men. In 1984, he was arrested by KGB agents in Novosibirsk and was imprisoned, being accused of illegal religious activities. He spent two and a half years in the Soviet camp, together with common criminals. In 1987, he was released. He continued his active mission work in many parts of the USSR. In 1991, he got in touch with the underground Orthodox community of Fr. Udovenko and promoted its conversion to Catholicism. In 1996 he was elevated to the rank of monsignor. The officials of the Moscow Patriarchate were displeased his missionary activities in Russia. In 1997, he returned to Ukraine where he continues his active pastoral work.

32 Pavlo (Paul) Vasylyk, Bishop (1926-2004) - was born in Western Ukraine, he began his studies at the college in Peremyshl, and his preparation for the priesthood at the seminary there. He was arrested in 1947, and sentenced, to a 10-year prison term for "the betrayal of the fatherland" and for engaging in "anti-Soviet propaganda". He served his sentence from 1947 to1955 in various prisons and camps in the Soviet Union. Bishop Charnetsky in Lviv ordained him a priest in 1956. He was arrested again in 1959. Upon his release in 1964, he travelled from village to village, as he could not receive a permit to reside in any Ukrainian city or town. In 1967, he was again in difficulty with the authorities, with the result that his identity card and his residence permit were taken away. He referred to his itinerant status as that of a "free man". In 1974, he was consecrated a bishop by Bishop Yosafat Fedoryk, OSBM. In 1987, he signed an official petition addressed to Mikhail Gorbachev and to Pope John Paul II respectively, asking the Soviet authorities to legalize the UGCC in the Soviet Union. The reaction of the authorities was to launch an anonymous letter campaign against the petitioners, which was publicly circulated. From 1987 to1989, Bishop Vasylyk played an active role in the many activities that led to the legalization of the UGCC. He was a leading member of a group of representatives of the underground Ukrainian Catholic hierarchy who were sent to Moscow on two official trips. Bishop Vasylyk served as auxiliary bishop in Ivano-Frankivsk(1989 -1993) and as bishop of the newly formed Eparchy of Kolomyia-Chernivtsi (1993-2004).

33 Andrey Makhin, OPL, priest (1944-1982) - was born into a family of Jewish origin in Moscow. In childhood, he was baptized in the Orthodox Church. He studied medicine, was a psychiatrist, and worked as psalm-reader in the “Rizopolozheniya na Donskoy ulitse” Orthodox Church. In 1979, he met Sr. Nora Rubashova and converted to Roman Catholicism. In 1980, he entered the Third Order Dominicans, and was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in Poland on the recommendation of Sr. Rubashova. After his ordination, he began to suffer from cancer. In 1981, he reconverted to Russian Orthodoxy as a layman. He died in Moscow.

34 Evgeniy Heinrichs, OP, priest – was born into a family of German origin in Leningrad (Saint-Petersburg) in 1953. He studied engineering, and served in the Soviet Army in the Baykonur cosmodrome. During the 1970s, he attended the underground seminars of Georgiy Fridmann. In 1981, he was ordained a Catholic priest of the Byzantine rite by Ukrainian Greek Catholic Bishop Pavlo Vasylyk in western Ukraine under the condition of celebrating only the Byzantine Liturgy. In 1987, he was recognized by local Soviet authorities as a Roman Catholic vicar. After Perestroika, he became Dean of St. Catherine’s Roman Catholic church and and entered the regular Dominican order. He tried to rusify the Latin rite and to form a specific “Russian” Roman Catholic parish, which led to conflict with the foreighn clergy in St Petersburg. He called on Russian Byzantine Catholics to adopt the Latin rite. In 2002, he was discharged from his ministry in Russia. He now lives in Italy.

35 Andrey (Dominic) Kasyanenko, OP, priest – was born in Leningrad (Saint-Petersburg) about 1955, he studied engineering. During the 1970s, he attended the seminars by Georgiy Fridmann. In 1980, he was ordained a Catholic priest of the Byzantine rite under the condition of celebrating only the Byzantine Liturgy. After 1981, he lived in Vilnius (Lithuania) in the flat of Natalia Trauberg and celebrated both the Latin-rite Mass and the Byzantine Divine Liturgy at the flat of the Dominican Sisters (Dzuku street). After Perestroika, he moved to a regular Dominican monastery in Fastov (Ukraine). In 1996, he left the order and married. Now he lives in Saint-Petersburg.

36 Roman Esip, priest - was active among underground Ukrainian Greek Catholic priests. In 1980-1981, he visited the underground Catholic communities in Moscow and Leningrad, where he celebrated the Byzantine Liturgy. In 1981, he was arrested by the KGB and sentenced to several years in the camps. In 2004 he claimed, he was consecrated in underground as bishop, but without documental evidence.

37 Yosafat Kavatsiv, OSBM, hieromonk – one of active underground Greek Catholic priests. In 1980-1981, he visited the underground Catholic communities in Moscow and Leningrad, where he celebrated the Byzantine liturgy. In 1981, he was arrested by the KGB and sentenced to several years in the camps. After legalization of the UGCC he carried active pastoral work. In 2000 he was in conflict with Church rules. Now he lives near Lviv as retired priest.

38 Georgiy Avvakumov, priest - was born in Leningrad in 1959. He graduated from Leningrad University, specializing in classical philology. After 1985, he work at the Public Library in Leningrad and taught in the Leningrad Orthodox Academy. In 1981, he converted to Catholicism in underground. He was ordained a deacon by Metropolitan Kirill Gundiayev in 1990 and worked in the Office of Interchurch Relation of Moscow Patriarchate. In 1992 he left his work in Petersburg and moved to Ukraine. He was ordained a priest in the UGCC and was appointed in Munich. Since 1992, he ministered as Chaplain in St. Nicolas’s Russian Catholic community in Munich (Germany). In 2001, he successfully defended a doctoral thesis in theology. He is the author several books and articles. Since 2007 he is dean of a faculty in Ukrainian Catholic University in Lvov.

39 Ivan Lupandin, OPL - was born into a family of Russian-Jewish origin in Moscow in 1958. In childhood, he was baptized in the Orthodox Church. At the age of ten, he discovered that his grandmother was Jewish and grew conscious of his Jewish heritage, while remaining a Christian. He studied physics in Moscow University. Often he went on pilgrimages to Orthodox monasteries. In 1978, he met Georgiy Fridmann and Sr. Nora Rubashova. In 1980, he entered the Dominican Third Order. After the beginning of Perestroika, he went to Western Europe many times to find support for the rebirth of the spititual community of Sr. Anna (Catherine) Abrikosova. However, Roman Catholic authorities were now more interested in official ecumenism with the Moscow Patriarchate and promoted only Latin rite in Russia. From 1992 to1995, he was dean of St. Thomas College of Catholic theology in Moscow. In 1994, he left the Dominican Order and joined Fr. Andrey Udovenko’s Russian Byzantine Catholic community of Sts. Peter and Andrew in Moscow. In 1997, he transferred to Fr. Stefano Caprio’s Russian Catholic community St. Philip of Moscow. From 1995 to1998, he studied theology in the Greek Catholic Spiritual Institute in Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine). In 1997, he and his wife were official representatives of Roman Catholics at the Catholic Congress of the family in Rio de Janeiro. In 1999, he reconverted to Russian Orthodoxy on the advice of several Roman Catholic ecumenists and works as an animator in an Orthodox parish. He lectures on philosophy at the Institute of Physics and Technology and works at editing the “Russian Catholic Encyclopedia.” He is married with 3 children. He lives in Moscow.

40 Natalia Trauberg, OPL – was born into a Jewish family in Leningrad (Saint-Petersburg) in 1928, she studied Roman-German philology in 1949. She was a famous Soviet translator of G. K. Chesterton, Graham Greene, P. G. Woodhouse, F. Garcia Lorca, and L. Pirandello. She was baptized in the Russian Orthodox Church. She married, but was divorced. Living in Vilnius, she met the Dominican sisters, converted to Roman Catholicism and entered the Third Order Dominicans. In the 1980s, she moved to Moscow and got in close touch with Fr. Alexander Men. She worked as a “literary Negro” for high Orthodox clergy. She was a key person who helped the Latin hierarchy to make contact with Russian post-Soviet nomenklatura in 1991. She was a member of the council of the Russian-speaking Roman Catholic parish of Our Lady of Fatima in Moscow and a member of a Russian Orthodox parish at the same time. She lives in Moscow.

41 Stanislaus Dobrovolskis, OFMcap, (1918-2005) - was born near Kaunas (Lithuania), entered the Capuchin Order, was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1944 and ministered as vicar in a parish in Lithuania. Between 1945 and 1955, he was imprisoned in Soviet camps. After 1956, he ministered in the Roman Catholic parish in Paberze (Lithuania). He got in touch with the followers of Fr. Alexander Men and Metropolitan Nikodim Rotov and led underground Christian seminars for the Russian intelligentsia. He was a key person in ecumenical contacts between Roman Catholics and Russian Orthodoxies in the former USSR. He died in Paberze.

42 Vladimir Nikiforov, priest – was born into an atheistic family of Jewish origin in Moscow about 1955, he studied mathematics and worked in a research institute as a programmer together with S. Nikolenko. In the 1970s, he met Fr. Alexander Men and became one of his close assistants. He wanted to become an Orthodox priest and changed his Jewish family name, Feldmann, to that of his Russian wife, Nikiforov. He led an underground Orthodox seminar, which translated “The Dutch Catechism” into Russian. In 1981, he converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a Roman Catholic priest. In 1981-1983, he led the underground Sts. Cyril and Methodius Roman Catholic parish. He sometimes visited Sr. Nora Rubashova and celebrated Mass there too. In 1983, he was arrested by the KGB and was under examination for 9 months. In 1984, he immigrated with his wife to England. He received his Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of London. Now Dr. Vladimir Nikiforov is Roman Catholic Chaplain and Visiting Lecturer in Ethics at Royal Holloway College at the University of London. He has published on cultural history and religious studies.

43 Dusan Spiridion Spiner, Bishop - was born in in Vydrnik (Slovakia) in 1950. In 1973, he was ordained a Roman Catholic priest. In 1979 he was secretly consecrated a bishop by Bishop Felix Maria Davidek. He ministered in the underground very actively. In 1981, he visited Moscow and secretly ordained Frs. Nikiforov and Nikolenko. In 1989, however, his Episcopal dignity was not recognized as valid by the Roman Curia, and the priests he ordained were re-ordained by other bishops. He now lives in a small village in Slovakia and ministers as a parish priest.

44 Sergey Nikolenko, priest – was born into an atheistic family in Moscow, he studied mathematics and worked in a research institute as a programmer together with V. Nikiforov. In 1981, he converted to Catholicism and was ordained a Roman Catholic priest. In 1981-1983, he participated in the activities of the underground Sts. Cyril and Methodius Roman Catholic parish. After 1991, he met with difficulties because of his marriage from official Catholic structures in Russia, which were highly conservative. Since 1991, he worked as a lecturer and translator in many Roman Catholic organizations in Moscow. He celebrated Holy Mass privately.

45 Andrey (Ignatiy) Krekshin, igumen – was born into a family of Jewish origin in Moscow in 1956, he studied arts in Moscow University. In the 1970s, he met Fr. Alexander Men and became a member of one of his small communities. In 1986-1889, he studied theology in Moscow Orthodox seminary. In 1989, he was ordained a priest by Metropolitan Yuvenaliy Poyarkov. After Perestroika, he went into a monastery and was appointed prior in a small Russian Orthodox religious community near Kolomna (Moscow region). He worked as an assistant in the office of the Holy Synod of ROC MP too. In 1998, he and his confreres were expelled from the monastery by conservative, anti-Semitic Orthodox clergy. In 1999, he got into touch with the Superior of the Jesuits in Russia, Stanislas Opiela, SJ, and converted to Roman Catholicism. In 2000-2001 he was in the novitiate of the Jesuits in Pullach (Germany) and studied in Munich University. In 2002, he was accepted into the clergy of the Diocese of Rottenburg-Stutgardt (Bishop Walter Kasper). He ministers as a Latin-rite chaplain in Heidelberg and had citizenship of Germany.

46 Yakov Krotov, priest - was born into an atheistic family of Jewish origin in Moscow in 1957. In the 1970s, he met Fr. Alexander Men and became one of his close assistants. His marriage being blessed by Fr. Alexander. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1982, and worked in the History Library and the Archive of Ancient Acts in the History Museum. He made translations of preparatory materials for the books of Fr. Alexander. After the death of Men, he worked as translator for Metropolitan Kirill Gundiayev and wanted to be ordained in the ROC MP, but was refused because of his origin. In 1996, he officially left the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate and joined Fr. Andrey Udovenko’s Russian Catholic parish of the Byzantine rite of Sts. Peter and Andrew in Moscow. In 1997, he transferred to Fr. Stefano Caprio’s Russian Catholic community of St. Philip of Moscow. In 1997-2002, he was an animator and psalm-reader of the community and appealed to the Catholic hierarchy of the UGCC to be ordained a priest on the recommendation of Fr. Caprio, but was unsuccessful because of pressure from the ecumenical lobby in the Vatican. In 2002, he was ordained a priest in the Apostolic Russian Orthodox Church (formerly, the Catacomb Orthodox Church). Since 1991, he has written hundreds of articles in the mass-media about Christianity. Since 1997, he has worked for Radio Free Europe, making a one-hour broadcast per week under the title "From the Christian point of view." He lives in Moscow.

47 Alexander Khmelnitsky, OP, priest – was born into a family of Jewish origin in Moscow in 1942, he studied oriental languages in Moscow University. Then he worked in a Communist publishing house and propagandist Radio, which translated the works of Marx and Lenin into oriental languages. In 1980, through the parish of Fr Alexander Men, he was in touch with retired French Roman Catholic archbishop, Charles de Provanchere, who visited Moscow and baptized him. Then he met Sr. Nora Rubashova and entered the Dominican Third Order. In 1982, he left Moscow to enter the Roman Catholic seminary in Riga (Latvia). However, a local Soviet representative took against him and the local Roman Catholic clergy there had conservative, anti-Semitic views. In 1989, he went to Poland, where he entered the Dominican order (eternal vows) and was ordained a Roman Catholic priest. At the beginning of the 1990s, he was radically against the rebirth of the Russian exarchate and called on Russian Catholics of the Byzantine rite to choose between Latin-rite Roman Catholicism and Russian Orthodoxy. From 1991 to1996, he was pastor of Our Lady of Fatima Roman Catholic church. Now he edits a literary and ecumenical magazine, “Istina I zhizn’”.

48 Yuliy Schreider, OPL (1927-1998) - was born into a Jewish family in Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). He was a famous Soviet mathematician, cyberneticist, philosopher, doctor of mathematics and professor. In 1970, he was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church in Tallinn. After meeting Sr. Nora Rubashova, he entered the Third Order Dominicans in 1977. As a result, he met with oppression from Soviet authorities and with restriction of his scientific activities. In 1989, he was one of the founders of a Catholic club, “Spiritual dialog,” and developed an ideological framework which led a number of Jewish converts to Christianity in Russia to adopt Roman Catholicism. He applied the term “Russian Catholics” only to modern Russian-speaking Roman Catholics. A member of the council of the Russian-speaking parish of Our Lady of Fatima in Moscow. He died in Moscow.

49 Aleksandr (Anastasiy) Pernitsky, archimandrite (1914-1996) - was born in Odessa in family of Germans. In 1925 he went in Germany with his parents. In 1936-38 he lived in Monastery of Studit order in Univ (near Lvov). After WW II, he worked as secretary of the Russicum in Rome, where he was charged falsely in espionage in favor of the USSR. In 50s-70s he worked for the Fatima Apostolate and the Blue Army. In 1986, Ukrainian Exarch for Germany ordained him a Catholic priest of Byzantine rite. He tried to get into touch with Russian Catholic in the USSR to renew Russian Exarchate. In 1992 visited Russia, where celebrated Liturgy for Russian Byzantine Catholics. He died in Rome.

50 Nikolay Kovalev, OPL – was born in Leningrad (Saint-Petersburg) in 1951 into a Russian family who were non-believers, he studied in a Technical college and worked as a machinist. In 1980, he met Fr. Fridmann, was baptized and entered the Dominican Third Order. In 1983, he was married by Fr. Heinrichs. Leaving Russia with his wife in 1989, he entered the “Russicum” in Rome, on the recommendation of Bishop Vasylyk. Later he abandoned his studies. He lives somewhere in Western Europe.



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